template literal vs string plus

JavaScript performance comparison

Revision 2 of this test case created by

Preparation code

<script>
// Copyright Joyent, Inc. and other Node contributors.
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
// copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
// "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
// without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
// distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
// persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the
// following conditions:
//
// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
// in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
//
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
// OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
// MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN
// NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM,
// DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR
// OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE
// USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

(function(global) {

exports = {};

var formatRegExp = /%[sdj%]/g;
exports.format = function(f) {
  if (!isString(f)) {
    var objects = [];
    for (var i = 0; i < arguments.length; i++) {
      objects.push(inspect(arguments[i]));
    }
    return objects.join(' ');
  }

  var i = 1;
  var args = arguments;
  var len = args.length;
  var str = String(f).replace(formatRegExp, function(x) {
    if (x === '%%') return '%';
    if (i >= len) return x;
    switch (x) {
      case '%s': return String(args[i++]);
      case '%d': return Number(args[i++]);
      case '%j':
        try {
          return JSON.stringify(args[i++]);
        } catch (_) {
          return '[Circular]';
        }
      default:
        return x;
    }
  });
  for (var x = args[i]; i < len; x = args[++i]) {
    if (isNull(x) || !isObject(x)) {
      str += ' ' + x;
    } else {
      str += ' ' + inspect(x);
    }
  }
  return str;
};


// Mark that a method should not be used.
// Returns a modified function which warns once by default.
// If --no-deprecation is set, then it is a no-op.
exports.deprecate = function(fn, msg) {
  // Allow for deprecating things in the process of starting up.
  if (isUndefined(global.process)) {
    return function() {
      return exports.deprecate(fn, msg).apply(this, arguments);
    };
  }

  if (process.noDeprecation === true) {
    return fn;
  }

  var warned = false;
  function deprecated() {
    if (!warned) {
      if (process.throwDeprecation) {
        throw new Error(msg);
      } else if (process.traceDeprecation) {
        console.trace(msg);
      } else {
        console.error(msg);
      }
      warned = true;
    }
    return fn.apply(this, arguments);
  }

  return deprecated;
};


var debugs = {};
var debugEnviron;
exports.debuglog = function(set) {
  if (isUndefined(debugEnviron))
    debugEnviron = process.env.NODE_DEBUG || '';
  set = set.toUpperCase();
  if (!debugs[set]) {
    if (new RegExp('\\b' + set + '\\b', 'i').test(debugEnviron)) {
      var pid = process.pid;
      debugs[set] = function() {
        var msg = exports.format.apply(exports, arguments);
        console.error('%s %d: %s', set, pid, msg);
      };
    } else {
      debugs[set] = function() {};
    }
  }
  return debugs[set];
};


/**
 * Echos the value of a value. Trys to print the value out
 * in the best way possible given the different types.
 *
 * @param {Object} obj The object to print out.
 * @param {Object} opts Optional options object that alters the output.
 */
/* legacy: obj, showHidden, depth, colors*/
function inspect(obj, opts) {
  // default options
  var ctx = {
    seen: [],
    stylize: stylizeNoColor
  };
  // legacy...
  if (arguments.length >= 3) ctx.depth = arguments[2];
  if (arguments.length >= 4) ctx.colors = arguments[3];
  if (isBoolean(opts)) {
    // legacy...
    ctx.showHidden = opts;
  } else if (opts) {
    // got an "options" object
    exports._extend(ctx, opts);
  }
  // set default options
  if (isUndefined(ctx.showHidden)) ctx.showHidden = false;
  if (isUndefined(ctx.depth)) ctx.depth = 2;
  if (isUndefined(ctx.colors)) ctx.colors = false;
  if (isUndefined(ctx.customInspect)) ctx.customInspect = true;
  if (ctx.colors) ctx.stylize = stylizeWithColor;
  return formatValue(ctx, obj, ctx.depth);
}
exports.inspect = inspect;


// http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANSI_escape_code#graphics
inspect.colors = {
  'bold' : [1, 22],
  'italic' : [3, 23],
  'underline' : [4, 24],
  'inverse' : [7, 27],
  'white' : [37, 39],
  'grey' : [90, 39],
  'black' : [30, 39],
  'blue' : [34, 39],
  'cyan' : [36, 39],
  'green' : [32, 39],
  'magenta' : [35, 39],
  'red' : [31, 39],
  'yellow' : [33, 39]
};

// Don't use 'blue' not visible on cmd.exe
inspect.styles = {
  'special': 'cyan',
  'number': 'yellow',
  'boolean': 'yellow',
  'undefined': 'grey',
  'null': 'bold',
  'string': 'green',
  'date': 'magenta',
  // "name": intentionally not styling
  'regexp': 'red'
};


function stylizeWithColor(str, styleType) {
  var style = inspect.styles[styleType];

  if (style) {
    return '\u001b[' + inspect.colors[style][0] + 'm' + str +
           '\u001b[' + inspect.colors[style][1] + 'm';
  } else {
    return str;
  }
}


function stylizeNoColor(str, styleType) {
  return str;
}


function arrayToHash(array) {
  var hash = {};

  array.forEach(function(val, idx) {
    hash[val] = true;
  });

  return hash;
}


function formatValue(ctx, value, recurseTimes) {
  // Provide a hook for user-specified inspect functions.
  // Check that value is an object with an inspect function on it
  if (ctx.customInspect &&
      value &&
      isFunction(value.inspect) &&
      // Filter out the util module, it's inspect function is special
      value.inspect !== exports.inspect &&
      // Also filter out any prototype objects using the circular check.
      !(value.constructor && value.constructor.prototype === value)) {
    var ret = value.inspect(recurseTimes, ctx);
    if (!isString(ret)) {
      ret = formatValue(ctx, ret, recurseTimes);
    }
    return ret;
  }

  // Primitive types cannot have properties
  var primitive = formatPrimitive(ctx, value);
  if (primitive) {
    return primitive;
  }

  // Look up the keys of the object.
  var keys = Object.keys(value);
  var visibleKeys = arrayToHash(keys);

  if (ctx.showHidden) {
    keys = Object.getOwnPropertyNames(value);
  }

  // This could be a boxed primitive (new String(), etc.), check valueOf()
  // NOTE: Avoid calling `valueOf` on `Date` instance because it will return
  // a number which, when object has some additional user-stored `keys`,
  // will be printed out.
  var formatted;
  var raw = value;
  try {
    // the .valueOf() call can fail for a multitude of reasons
    if (!isDate(value))
      raw = value.valueOf();
  } catch (e) {
    // ignore...
  }

  if (isString(raw)) {
    // for boxed Strings, we have to remove the 0-n indexed entries,
    // since they just noisey up the output and are redundant
    keys = keys.filter(function(key) {
      return !(key >= 0 && key < raw.length);
    });
  }

  // Some type of object without properties can be shortcutted.
  if (keys.length === 0) {
    if (isFunction(value)) {
      var name = value.name ? ': ' + value.name : '';
      return ctx.stylize('[Function' + name + ']', 'special');
    }
    if (isRegExp(value)) {
      return ctx.stylize(RegExp.prototype.toString.call(value), 'regexp');
    }
    if (isDate(value)) {
      return ctx.stylize(Date.prototype.toString.call(value), 'date');
    }
    if (isError(value)) {
      return formatError(value);
    }
    // now check the `raw` value to handle boxed primitives
    if (isString(raw)) {
      formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
      return ctx.stylize('[String: ' + formatted + ']', 'string');
    }
    if (isNumber(raw)) {
      formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
      return ctx.stylize('[Number: ' + formatted + ']', 'number');
    }
    if (isBoolean(raw)) {
      formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
      return ctx.stylize('[Boolean: ' + formatted + ']', 'boolean');
    }
  }

  var base = '', array = false, braces = ['{', '}'];

  // Make Array say that they are Array
  if (isArray(value)) {
    array = true;
    braces = ['[', ']'];
  }

  // Make functions say that they are functions
  if (isFunction(value)) {
    var n = value.name ? ': ' + value.name : '';
    base = ' [Function' + n + ']';
  }

  // Make RegExps say that they are RegExps
  if (isRegExp(value)) {
    base = ' ' + RegExp.prototype.toString.call(value);
  }

  // Make dates with properties first say the date
  if (isDate(value)) {
    base = ' ' + Date.prototype.toUTCString.call(value);
  }

  // Make error with message first say the error
  if (isError(value)) {
    base = ' ' + formatError(value);
  }

  // Make boxed primitive Strings look like such
  if (isString(raw)) {
    formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
    base = ' ' + '[String: ' + formatted + ']';
  }

  // Make boxed primitive Numbers look like such
  if (isNumber(raw)) {
    formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
    base = ' ' + '[Number: ' + formatted + ']';
  }

  // Make boxed primitive Booleans look like such
  if (isBoolean(raw)) {
    formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
    base = ' ' + '[Boolean: ' + formatted + ']';
  }

  if (keys.length === 0 && (!array || value.length === 0)) {
    return braces[0] + base + braces[1];
  }

  if (recurseTimes < 0) {
    if (isRegExp(value)) {
      return ctx.stylize(RegExp.prototype.toString.call(value), 'regexp');
    } else {
      return ctx.stylize('[Object]', 'special');
    }
  }

  ctx.seen.push(value);

  var output;
  if (array) {
    output = formatArray(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys, keys);
  } else {
    output = keys.map(function(key) {
      return formatProperty(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys, key, array);
    });
  }

  ctx.seen.pop();

  return reduceToSingleString(output, base, braces);
}


function formatPrimitive(ctx, value) {
  if (isUndefined(value))
    return ctx.stylize('undefined', 'undefined');
  if (isString(value)) {
    var simple = '\'' + JSON.stringify(value).replace(/^"|"$/g, '')
                                             .replace(/'/g, "\\'")
                                             .replace(/\\"/g, '"') + '\'';
    return ctx.stylize(simple, 'string');
  }
  if (isNumber(value)) {
    // Format -0 as '-0'. Strict equality won't distinguish 0 from -0,
    // so instead we use the fact that 1 / -0 < 0 whereas 1 / 0 > 0 .
    if (value === 0 && 1 / value < 0)
      return ctx.stylize('-0', 'number');
    return ctx.stylize('' + value, 'number');
  }
  if (isBoolean(value))
    return ctx.stylize('' + value, 'boolean');
  // For some reason typeof null is "object", so special case here.
  if (isNull(value))
    return ctx.stylize('null', 'null');
}


function formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, value) {
  var stylize = ctx.stylize;
  ctx.stylize = stylizeNoColor;
  var str = formatPrimitive(ctx, value);
  ctx.stylize = stylize;
  return str;
}


function formatError(value) {
  return '[' + Error.prototype.toString.call(value) + ']';
}


function formatArray(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys, keys) {
  var output = [];
  for (var i = 0, l = value.length; i < l; ++i) {
    if (hasOwnProperty(value, String(i))) {
      output.push(formatProperty(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys,
          String(i), true));
    } else {
      output.push('');
    }
  }
  keys.forEach(function(key) {
    if (!key.match(/^\d+$/)) {
      output.push(formatProperty(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys,
          key, true));
    }
  });
  return output;
}


function formatProperty(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys, key, array) {
  var name, str, desc;
  desc = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(value, key) || { value: value[key] };
  if (desc.get) {
    if (desc.set) {
      str = ctx.stylize('[Getter/Setter]', 'special');
    } else {
      str = ctx.stylize('[Getter]', 'special');
    }
  } else {
    if (desc.set) {
      str = ctx.stylize('[Setter]', 'special');
    }
  }
  if (!hasOwnProperty(visibleKeys, key)) {
    name = '[' + key + ']';
  }
  if (!str) {
    if (ctx.seen.indexOf(desc.value) < 0) {
      if (isNull(recurseTimes)) {
        str = formatValue(ctx, desc.value, null);
      } else {
        str = formatValue(ctx, desc.value, recurseTimes - 1);
      }
      if (str.indexOf('\n') > -1) {
        if (array) {
          str = str.split('\n').map(function(line) {
            return '  ' + line;
          }).join('\n').substr(2);
        } else {
          str = '\n' + str.split('\n').map(function(line) {
            return '   ' + line;
          }).join('\n');
        }
      }
    } else {
      str = ctx.stylize('[Circular]', 'special');
    }
  }
  if (isUndefined(name)) {
    if (array && key.match(/^\d+$/)) {
      return str;
    }
    name = JSON.stringify('' + key);
    if (name.match(/^"([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)"$/)) {
      name = name.substr(1, name.length - 2);
      name = ctx.stylize(name, 'name');
    } else {
      name = name.replace(/'/g, "\\'")
                 .replace(/\\"/g, '"')
                 .replace(/(^"|"$)/g, "'")
                 .replace(/\\\\/g, '\\');
      name = ctx.stylize(name, 'string');
    }
  }

  return name + ': ' + str;
}


function reduceToSingleString(output, base, braces) {
  var length = output.reduce(function(prev, cur) {
    return prev + cur.replace(/\u001b\[\d\d?m/g, '').length + 1;
  }, 0);

  if (length > 60) {
    return braces[0] +
           (base === '' ? '' : base + '\n ') +
           ' ' +
           output.join(',\n  ') +
           ' ' +
           braces[1];
  }

  return braces[0] + base + ' ' + output.join(', ') + ' ' + braces[1];
}


// NOTE: These type checking functions intentionally don't use `instanceof`
// because it is fragile and can be easily faked with `Object.create()`.
var isArray = exports.isArray = Array.isArray;

function isBoolean(arg) {
  return typeof arg === 'boolean';
}
exports.isBoolean = isBoolean;

function isNull(arg) {
  return arg === null;
}
exports.isNull = isNull;

function isNullOrUndefined(arg) {
  return arg == null;
}
exports.isNullOrUndefined = isNullOrUndefined;

function isNumber(arg) {
  return typeof arg === 'number';
}
exports.isNumber = isNumber;

function isString(arg) {
  return typeof arg === 'string';
}
exports.isString = isString;

function isSymbol(arg) {
  return typeof arg === 'symbol';
}
exports.isSymbol = isSymbol;

function isUndefined(arg) {
  return arg === void 0;
}
exports.isUndefined = isUndefined;

function isRegExp(re) {
  return isObject(re) && objectToString(re) === '[object RegExp]';
}
exports.isRegExp = isRegExp;

function isObject(arg) {
  return typeof arg === 'object' && arg !== null;
}
exports.isObject = isObject;

function isDate(d) {
  return isObject(d) && objectToString(d) === '[object Date]';
}
exports.isDate = isDate;

function isError(e) {
  return isObject(e) &&
      (objectToString(e) === '[object Error]' || e instanceof Error);
}
exports.isError = isError;

function isFunction(arg) {
  return typeof arg === 'function';
}
exports.isFunction = isFunction;

function isPrimitive(arg) {
  return arg === null ||
         typeof arg === 'boolean' ||
         typeof arg === 'number' ||
         typeof arg === 'string' ||
         typeof arg === 'symbol' ||  // ES6 symbol
         typeof arg === 'undefined';
}
exports.isPrimitive = isPrimitive;

function isBuffer(arg) {
  return arg instanceof Buffer;
}
exports.isBuffer = isBuffer;

function objectToString(o) {
  return Object.prototype.toString.call(o);
}


function pad(n) {
  return n < 10 ? '0' + n.toString(10) : n.toString(10);
}


var months = ['Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun', 'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep',
              'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec'];

// 26 Feb 16:19:34
function timestamp() {
  var d = new Date();
  var time = [pad(d.getHours()),
              pad(d.getMinutes()),
              pad(d.getSeconds())].join(':');
  return [d.getDate(), months[d.getMonth()], time].join(' ');
}


// log is just a thin wrapper to console.log that prepends a timestamp
exports.log = function() {
  console.log('%s - %s', timestamp(), exports.format.apply(exports, arguments));
};


/**
 * Inherit the prototype methods from one constructor into another.
 *
 * The Function.prototype.inherits from lang.js rewritten as a standalone
 * function (not on Function.prototype). NOTE: If this file is to be loaded
 * during bootstrapping this function needs to be rewritten using some native
 * functions as prototype setup using normal JavaScript does not work as
 * expected during bootstrapping (see mirror.js in r114903).
 *
 * @param {function} ctor Constructor function which needs to inherit the
 *     prototype.
 * @param {function} superCtor Constructor function to inherit prototype from.
 */
exports.inherits = function(ctor, superCtor) {
  ctor.super_ = superCtor;
  ctor.prototype = Object.create(superCtor.prototype, {
    constructor: {
      value: ctor,
      enumerable: false,
      writable: true,
      configurable: true
    }
  });
};

exports._extend = function(origin, add) {
  // Don't do anything if add isn't an object
  if (!add || !isObject(add)) return origin;

  var keys = Object.keys(add);
  var i = keys.length;
  while (i--) {
    origin[keys[i]] = add[keys[i]];
  }
  return origin;
};

function hasOwnProperty(obj, prop) {
  return Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(obj, prop);
}


// Deprecated old stuff.

exports.p = exports.deprecate(function() {
  for (var i = 0, len = arguments.length; i < len; ++i) {
    console.error(exports.inspect(arguments[i]));
  }
}, 'util.p: Use console.error() instead');


exports.exec = exports.deprecate(function() {
  return require('child_process').exec.apply(this, arguments);
}, 'util.exec is now called `child_process.exec`.');


exports.print = exports.deprecate(function() {
  for (var i = 0, len = arguments.length; i < len; ++i) {
    process.stdout.write(String(arguments[i]));
  }
}, 'util.print: Use console.log instead');


exports.puts = exports.deprecate(function() {
  for (var i = 0, len = arguments.length; i < len; ++i) {
    process.stdout.write(arguments[i] + '\n');
  }
}, 'util.puts: Use console.log instead');


exports.debug = exports.deprecate(function(x) {
  process.stderr.write('DEBUG: ' + x + '\n');
}, 'util.debug: Use console.error instead');


exports.error = exports.deprecate(function(x) {
  for (var i = 0, len = arguments.length; i < len; ++i) {
    process.stderr.write(arguments[i] + '\n');
  }
}, 'util.error: Use console.error instead');


exports.pump = exports.deprecate(function(readStream, writeStream, callback) {
  var callbackCalled = false;

  function call(a, b, c) {
    if (callback && !callbackCalled) {
      callback(a, b, c);
      callbackCalled = true;
    }
  }

  readStream.addListener('data', function(chunk) {
    if (writeStream.write(chunk) === false) readStream.pause();
  });

  writeStream.addListener('drain', function() {
    readStream.resume();
  });

  readStream.addListener('end', function() {
    writeStream.end();
  });

  readStream.addListener('close', function() {
    call();
  });

  readStream.addListener('error', function(err) {
    writeStream.end();
    call(err);
  });

  writeStream.addListener('error', function(err) {
    readStream.destroy();
    call(err);
  });
}, 'util.pump(): Use readableStream.pipe() instead');


var uv;
exports._errnoException = function(err, syscall, original) {
  if (isUndefined(uv)) uv = process.binding('uv');
  var errname = uv.errname(err);
  var message = syscall + ' ' + errname;
  if (original)
    message += ' ' + original;
  var e = new Error(message);
  e.code = errname;
  e.errno = errname;
  e.syscall = syscall;
  return e;
};

global.util = exports;
})(this);
</script>
    

Test runner

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Testing in CCBot 2.0.0 / Other 0.0.0
Test Ops/sec
template-literal
var test1 = 'foovar';
var test2 = 'hogefuga';
var result = `this is ${test1}, string ${test2}`;
pending…
string-plus
var test1 = 'foovar';
var test2 = 'hogefuga';
var result = 'this is ' + test1 + ', string ' + test2;
pending…
util.format
var test1 = 'foovar';
var test2 = 'hogefuga';
var result = util.format('this is %s, string %s', test1, test2);
pending…

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