Different ways to select children in jQuery (nman edit)

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using id lookup instead of li, which will expose the difference in css selector approach vs. context approach (especially for browsers that use sizzle.js instead of native querySelector).

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</div><div class="metadata topicon" id="protected-icon" style="display:none; right:55px;"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Protection_policy#move" title="This article is move-protected until October 6, 2012."><img alt="Page move-protected" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/5/58/Padlock-olive.svg/20px-Padlock-olive.svg.png" width="20" height="20" /></a></div>
<div class="dablink">For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Appaloosa_(disambiguation)" title="Appaloosa (disambiguation)">Appaloosa (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
<table class="infobox biota" cellspacing="5" style="width:22em;">
<caption class="" style="">Appaloosa</caption>
<tr class="">
<td colspan="2" class="" style="text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/File:THIEL_619.jpg" class="image"><img alt="A dark brown horse with a white and brown spotted rump running in a field." src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/THIEL_619.jpg/220px-THIEL_619.jpg" width="220" height="293" /></a><br />
<span style="">Appaloosa horse</span></td>
</tr>
<tr class="">
<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Distinguishing features</th>
<td class="" style="">Most representatives have colorful spotted coat patterns, striped hooves, mottled skin and white <a href="/wiki/Sclera" title="Sclera">sclera</a> visible around the iris when the eye is in a normal position.</td>
</tr>
<tr class="">
<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Country of origin</th>
<td class="" style="">United States</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th colspan="2" class="" style="text-align:center;">Breed standards</th>
</tr>
<tr class="">
<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Appaloosa Horse Club</th>
<td class="" style=""><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/">Breed standards</a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" class="" style="text-align:center;"><span class="vernacular"><b><a href="/wiki/Horse" title="Horse">Horse</a></b></span> (<i><span class="trinominal">Equus ferus caballus</span></i>)</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p>The <b>Appaloosa</b> is a <a href="/wiki/Horse_breed" title="Horse breed">horse breed</a> best known for its colorful <a href="/wiki/Leopard_complex" title="Leopard complex">leopard</a>-spotted coat pattern. There is a wide range of body types within the breed, stemming from the influence of multiple breeds of horses throughout its history. Each horse's color pattern is genetically the result of various spotting patterns overlaid on top of one of several recognized base coat colors. The color pattern of the Appaloosa is of interest to those who study <a href="/wiki/Equine_coat_color_genetics" title="Equine coat color genetics">equine coat color genetics</a>, as it and several other physical characteristics are linked to the <a href="/wiki/Leopard_complex" title="Leopard complex">leopard complex</a> mutation (LP). Appaloosas are prone to develop <a href="/wiki/Equine_Recurrent_Uveitis" title="Equine Recurrent Uveitis">equine recurrent uveitis</a> and <a href="/wiki/Nyctalopia" title="Nyctalopia">congenital stationary night blindness</a>; the latter has been linked to the leopard complex.</p>
<p>Artwork depicting prehistoric horses with leopard spotting exists in prehistoric <a href="/wiki/Cave_paintings" title="Cave paintings" class="mw-redirect">cave paintings</a> in Europe. Images of <a href="/wiki/Domestication_of_the_horse" title="Domestication of the horse">domesticated horses</a> with leopard spotting patterns appeared in artwork from <a href="/wiki/Ancient_Greece" title="Ancient Greece">Ancient Greece</a> through the <a href="/wiki/Early_modern_period" title="Early modern period">Early modern period</a>; the <a href="/wiki/Nez_Perce_tribe" title="Nez Perce tribe" class="mw-redirect">Nez Perce</a> people of what today is the United States <a href="/wiki/Pacific_Northwest" title="Pacific Northwest">Pacific Northwest</a> developed the original American breed. Appaloosas were once referred to by <a href="/wiki/American_pioneer" title="American pioneer">settlers</a> as the "Palouse horse", possibly after the <a href="/wiki/Palouse_River" title="Palouse River">Palouse River</a>, which ran through the heart of Nez Perce country. Gradually, the name evolved into "Appaloosa". The Nez Perce lost most of their horses after the <a href="/wiki/Nez_Perce_War" title="Nez Perce War">Nez Perce War</a> in 1877, and the breed fell into decline for several decades. A small number of dedicated breeders preserved the Appaloosa as a distinct breed until the <a href="/wiki/Appaloosa_Horse_Club" title="Appaloosa Horse Club">Appaloosa Horse Club</a> (ApHC) was formed as the <a href="/wiki/Breed_registry" title="Breed registry">breed registry</a> in 1938. The modern breed maintains bloodlines tracing to the <a href="/wiki/Foundation_bloodstock" title="Foundation bloodstock">foundation bloodstock</a> of the registry, and has a partially <a href="/wiki/Open_stud_book" title="Open stud book" class="mw-redirect">open stud book</a> that allows addition of some <a href="/wiki/Thoroughbred" title="Thoroughbred">Thoroughbred</a>, <a href="/wiki/American_Quarter_Horse" title="American Quarter Horse">American Quarter Horse</a> and <a href="/wiki/Arabian_horse" title="Arabian horse">Arabian</a> blood.</p>
<p>Today, the Appaloosa is one of the most popular breeds in the United States; it was named the official <a href="/wiki/State_horse" title="State horse" class="mw-redirect">state horse</a> of <a href="/wiki/Idaho" title="Idaho">Idaho</a> in 1975. It is best known as a <a href="/wiki/Stock_horse" title="Stock horse">stock horse</a> used in a number of <a href="/wiki/Western_riding" title="Western riding">western riding</a> disciplines, but is also a versatile breed with representatives seen in many other types of <a href="/wiki/Equestrianism" title="Equestrianism">equestrian</a> activity. Appaloosas have appeared in many movies and one is a mascot for the <a href="/wiki/Florida_State_Seminoles" title="Florida State Seminoles">Florida State Seminoles</a>. Appaloosa bloodlines have influenced other horse breeds, including the <a href="/wiki/Pony_of_the_Americas" title="Pony of the Americas">Pony of the Americas</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Nez_Perce_Horse" title="Nez Perce Horse">Nez Perce Horse</a>, and several <a href="/wiki/Gaited_horse" title="Gaited horse" class="mw-redirect">gaited horse</a> breeds.</p>
<table id="toc" class="toc">
<tr>
<td>
<div id="toctitle">
<h2>Contents</h2>
</div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Breed_characteristics"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Breed characteristics</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Color_and_spotting_patterns"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Color and spotting patterns</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Color_genetics"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Color genetics</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Nez_Perce_people"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Nez Perce people</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Nez_Perce_War"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Nez Perce War</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Aftermath_of_the_Nez_Perce_War"><span class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Aftermath of the Nez Perce War</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Revitalization"><span class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Revitalization</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a href="#Registration"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Registration</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Color_rule_controversy"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Color rule controversy</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-11"><a href="#Uses"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Uses</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Influence"><span class="tocnumber">5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Influence</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-13"><a href="#Health_issues"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Health issues</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Genetically_linked_blindness"><span class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Genetically linked blindness</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Drug_rules"><span class="tocnumber">6.2</span> <span class="toctext">Drug rules</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16"><a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Notes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-17"><a href="#Footnotes"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Footnotes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-19"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Breed characteristics">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Breed_characteristics">Breed characteristics</span></h2>
<div class="thumb tleft">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Sclera_and_mottling.jpg" class="image"><img alt="The head of a light-colored horse with dark spots, showing spotting around the skin of the eye and muzzle." src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/12/Sclera_and_mottling.jpg/170px-Sclera_and_mottling.jpg" width="170" height="303" class="thumbimage" /></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Sclera_and_mottling.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="//bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.20wmf12/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
Mottling on the skin is particularly visible around the eyes and muzzle. The sclera of an Appaloosa's eye is white.</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>The Appaloosa is best known for its distinctive, preferred <a href="/wiki/Leopard_complex" title="Leopard complex">leopard complex</a> spotted coat. Spotting occurs in several overlay patterns on one of several recognized base <a href="/wiki/Horse_coat_color" title="Horse coat color" class="mw-redirect">coat colors</a>. There are three other distinctive, "core" characteristics: <a href="/wiki/Mottle" title="Mottle">mottled</a> skin, striped hooves, and eyes with a white <a href="/wiki/Sclera" title="Sclera">sclera</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHCrules-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> Skin mottling is usually seen around the muzzle, eyes, anus, and genitalia.<sup id="cite_ref-Rule128_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Rule128-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> Striped hooves are a common trait, quite noticeable on Appaloosas, but not unique to the breed.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup> The sclera is the part of the eye surrounding the <a href="/wiki/Iris_(anatomy)" title="Iris (anatomy)">iris</a>; although all horses show white around the eye if the eye is rolled back, to have a readily visible white sclera with the eye in a normal position is a distinctive characteristic seen more often in Appaloosas than in other breeds.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup> Because the occasional individual is born with little or no visible spotting pattern, the ApHC allows "regular" registration of horses with mottled skin plus at least one of the other core characteristics. Horses with two ApHC parents but no "identifiable Appaloosa characteristics" are registered as "non-characteristic," a limited special registration status.<sup id="cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHCrules-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>There is a wide range of body types in the Appaloosa, in part because the leopard complex characteristics are its primary identifying factors, and also because several different <a href="/wiki/List_of_horse_breeds" title="List of horse breeds">horse breeds</a> influenced its development. The weight range varies from 950 to 1,250 pounds (430 to 570 kg), and heights from 14 to 16&#160;<a href="/wiki/Hand_(length)" title="Hand (length)" class="mw-redirect">hands</a> (56 to 64&#160;inches, 142 to 163&#160;cm).<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup> However, the ApHC does not allow <a href="/wiki/Pony" title="Pony">pony</a> or <a href="/wiki/Draft_horse" title="Draft horse">draft</a> breeding.<sup id="cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHCrules-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The original "old time" or "old type" Appaloosa was a tall, narrow-bodied, rangy horse.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27392_4-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27392-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup> The body style reflected a mix that started with the traditional <a href="/wiki/Iberian_horse" title="Iberian horse">Spanish horses</a> already common on the plains of America before 1700. Then, 18th-century European bloodlines were added, particularly those of the "pied" horses popular in that period and shipped <i>en masse</i> to the Americas once the color had become unfashionable in Europe.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391_5-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> These horses were similar to a tall, slim <a href="/wiki/Thoroughbred" title="Thoroughbred">Thoroughbred</a>-<a href="/wiki/Andalusian_horse" title="Andalusian horse">Andalusian</a> type of horse popular in <a href="/wiki/Enlightenment_in_Spain" title="Enlightenment in Spain">Bourbon-era Spain</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391_5-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27170_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27170-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup> The original Appaloosa tended to have a convex facial profile that resembled that of the <a href="/wiki/Warmblood" title="Warmblood">warmblood</a>-<a href="/wiki/Jennet" title="Jennet">Jennet</a> crosses first developed in the 16th century during the reign of <a href="/wiki/Charles_V,_Holy_Roman_Emperor" title="Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor">Charles V</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27392_4-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27392-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27308_7-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27308-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup> The old-type Appaloosa was later modified by the addition of draft horse blood after the 1877 defeat of the Nez Perce, when U.S. Government policy forced the Indians to become farmers and provided them with draft horse mares to breed to existing stallions.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27392_4-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27392-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup> The original Appaloosas frequently had a sparse <a href="/wiki/Mane_(horse)" title="Mane (horse)">mane</a> and <a href="/wiki/Tail_(horse)" title="Tail (horse)">tail</a>, but that was not a primary characteristic as many early Appaloosas did have full manes and tails.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2727.E2.80.9328_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2727.E2.80.9328-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup> There is a possible genetic link between the leopard complex and sparse mane and tail growth, although the precise relationship is unknown.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>After the formation of the Appaloosa Horse Club in 1938, a more modern type developed after the addition of <a href="/wiki/American_Quarter_Horse" title="American Quarter Horse">American Quarter Horse</a> and <a href="/wiki/Arabian_horse" title="Arabian horse">Arabian</a> bloodlines. The addition of Quarter Horse lines produced Appaloosas that performed better in <a href="/wiki/Horse_racing" title="Horse racing">sprint racing</a> and in <a href="/wiki/Halter_(horse_show)" title="Halter (horse show)">halter</a> competition. Many cutting and reining horses resulted from old-type Appaloosas crossed on Arabian bloodlines, particularly via the Appaloosa <a href="/wiki/Foundation_bloodstock" title="Foundation bloodstock">foundation stallion</a> Red Eagle.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27393_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27393-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup> An infusion of Thoroughbred blood was added during the 1970s to produce horses more suited for racing.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarris.2C_.27.27Horse_Breeds_of_the_West.27.2712_11-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarris.2C_.27.27Horse_Breeds_of_the_West.27.2712-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup> Many current breeders also attempt to breed away from the sparse, "rat tail" trait, and therefore modern Appaloosas have fuller manes and tails.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2727.E2.80.9328_8-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2727.E2.80.9328-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Color and spotting patterns">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Color_and_spotting_patterns">Color and spotting patterns</span></h2>
<div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">See also: <a href="/wiki/Equine_coat_color" title="Equine coat color">Equine coat color</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:AppaloosaCharlie.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2a/AppaloosaCharlie.jpg/220px-AppaloosaCharlie.jpg" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" /></a>
<div class="thumbcaption">
<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:AppaloosaCharlie.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="//bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.20wmf12/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
Few spot leopard Appaloosa with wet coat showing "halo" effect of dark skin under white coat around spots.</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>The coat color of an Appaloosa is a combination of a base color with an overlaid spotting pattern. The base colors recognized by the Appaloosa Horse Club include <a href="/wiki/Bay_(horse)" title="Bay (horse)">bay</a>, <a href="/wiki/Black_(horse)" title="Black (horse)">black</a>, <a href="/wiki/Chestnut_(coat)" title="Chestnut (coat)">chestnut</a>, <a href="/wiki/Palomino" title="Palomino">palomino</a>, <a href="/wiki/Buckskin_(horse)" title="Buckskin (horse)">buckskin</a>, <a href="/wiki/Cream_gene" title="Cream gene">cremello or perlino</a>, <a href="/wiki/Roan_(horse)" title="Roan (horse)">roan</a>, <a href="/wiki/Gray_(horse)" title="Gray (horse)">gray</a>, <a href="/wiki/Dun_gene" title="Dun gene">dun</a> and <a href="/wiki/Grullo" title="Grullo">grulla</a>. Appaloosa markings have several pattern variations.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup> It is this unique group of spotting patterns, collectively called the "leopard complex",<sup id="cite_ref-APstudies_12-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-APstudies-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup> that most people associate with the Appaloosa horse.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup> Spots overlay darker skin, and are often surrounded by a "halo", where the skin next to the spot is also dark but the overlying hair coat is white.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2792_13-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2792-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>It is not always easy to predict a grown Appaloosa's color at birth. Foals of any breed tend to be born with coats that darken when they shed their baby hair.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup> In addition, Appaloosa foals do not always show classic leopard complex characteristics.<sup id="cite_ref-APstudies_12-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-APstudies-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup> Patterns sometimes change over the course of the horse's life although some, such as the blanket and leopard patterns, tend to be stable. Horses with the varnish roan and snowflake patterns are especially prone to show very little color pattern at birth, developing more visible spotting as they get older.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2792_13-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2792-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The ApHC also recognizes the concept of a "solid" horse, which has a base color "but no contrasting color in the form of an Appaloosa coat pattern". Solid horses can be registered if they have mottled skin and one other leopard complex characteristic.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Base colors are overlain by various spotting patterns, which are variable and often do not fit neatly into a specific category.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup> These patterns are described as follows:</p>
<table class="wikitable plainrowheaders" style="width: 100%; clear: right;">
<tr>
<th scope="col">Pattern</th>
<th scope="col">Description</th>
<th scope="col">Image<sup id="cite_ref-15" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row">Spots</th>
<td>General term that refers to a horse that has white or dark spots over all or a portion of its body.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Appaloosa_(DSC00229).jpg" class="image"><img alt="Appaloosa (DSC00229).jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/Appaloosa_%28DSC00229%29.jpg/100px-Appaloosa_%28DSC00229%29.jpg" width="100" height="150" /></a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row">Blanket or snowcap</th>
<td>A solid white area normally over, but not limited to, the hip area with a contrasting base color.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:SnowflakeCrop.jpg" class="image"><img alt="SnowflakeCrop.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/SnowflakeCrop.jpg/100px-SnowflakeCrop.jpg" width="100" height="82" /></a></td>
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<th scope="row">Blanket with spots</th>
<td>A white blanket which has dark spots within the white. The spots are usually the same color as the horse's base color.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Appaloosa46-2.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Appaloosa46-2.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d2/Appaloosa46-2.jpg/100px-Appaloosa46-2.jpg" width="100" height="71" /></a></td>
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<th scope="row">Leopard</th>
<td>A white horse with dark spots that flow out over the entire body. Considered an extension of a blanket to cover the whole body.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Appaloosa_stallion.JPG" class="image"><img alt="Appaloosa stallion.JPG" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/93/Appaloosa_stallion.JPG/100px-Appaloosa_stallion.JPG" width="100" height="75" /></a></td>
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<th scope="row">Few spot leopard</th>
<td>A mostly white horse with a bit of color remaining around the flank, neck and head.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Shiny_fewspot.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Shiny fewspot.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Shiny_fewspot.jpg/100px-Shiny_fewspot.jpg" width="100" height="75" /></a></td>
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<th scope="row">Snowflake</th>
<td>A horse with white spots, flecks, on a dark body. Typically the white spots increase in number and size as the horse ages.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:AppaloosaSnowflakes.jpg" class="image"><img alt="AppaloosaSnowflakes.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/AppaloosaSnowflakes.jpg/100px-AppaloosaSnowflakes.jpg" width="100" height="67" /></a></td>
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<th scope="row" style="white-space: nowrap;">Appaloosa&#160;roan,&#160;marble<br />
&#160;&#160;or <a href="/wiki/Varnish_roan" title="Varnish roan">varnish roan</a></th>
<td>A distinct version of the leopard complex. Intermixed dark and light hairs with lighter colored area on the forehead, jowls and frontal bones of the face, over the back, loin and hips. Darker areas may appear along the edges of the frontal bones of the face as well and also on the legs, stifle, above the eye, point of the hip and behind the elbow. The dark points over bony areas are called "varnish marks" and distinguish this pattern from a traditional <a href="/wiki/Roan_(horse)" title="Roan (horse)">roan</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Flurrie_3.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Flurrie 3.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Flurrie_3.jpg/100px-Flurrie_3.jpg" width="100" height="67" /></a></td>
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<th scope="row">Mottled</th>
<td>A fewspot leopard that is completely white with only mottled skin showing.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Appyfoal.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Appyfoal.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Appyfoal.jpg/100px-Appyfoal.jpg" width="100" height="85" /></a></td>
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<th scope="row">Roan blanket or Frost</th>
<td>Horses with roaning over the croup and hips. The blanket normally occurs over, but is not limited to, the hip area.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:Standing_Apaloosa.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Standing Apaloosa.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Standing_Apaloosa.jpg/100px-Standing_Apaloosa.jpg" width="100" height="78" /></a></td>
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<th scope="row" style="white-space: nowrap;">Roan blanket with spots</th>
<td>A horse with a roan blanket that has white and/or dark spots within the roan area.<sup id="cite_ref-Identify_2-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Identify-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
<td><a href="/wiki/File:LeopardHorse.jpg" class="image"><img alt="LeopardHorse.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/LeopardHorse.jpg/100px-LeopardHorse.jpg" width="100" height="67" /></a></td>
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<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Color genetics">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Color_genetics">Color genetics</span></h3>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Leopard_complex" title="Leopard complex">Leopard complex</a></div>
<div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">See also: <a href="/wiki/Equine_coat_color_genetics" title="Equine coat color genetics">Equine coat color genetics</a></div>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Stripedhooves.jpg" class="image"><img alt="A brown and white striped horse hoof, with a dark colored leg partially visible" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Stripedhooves.jpg/170px-Stripedhooves.jpg" width="170" height="255" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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Striped hooves are a characteristic trait.</div>
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<p>Any horse that shows Appaloosa core characteristics of coat pattern, mottled skin, striped hooves, and a visible white sclera, carries at least one <a href="/wiki/Allele" title="Allele">allele</a> of the dominant "leopard complex" (LP) <a href="/wiki/Gene" title="Gene">gene</a>. The use of the word "complex" is used to refer to the large group of visible patterns that may occur when LP is present.<sup id="cite_ref-APstudies_12-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-APstudies-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup> LP is an <a href="/wiki/Autosomal" title="Autosomal" class="mw-redirect">autosomal</a> <a href="/wiki/Dominance_relationship#Incomplete_and_semi-dominance" title="Dominance relationship" class="mw-redirect">incomplete dominant</a> <a href="/wiki/Mutation" title="Mutation">mutation</a> in the <a href="/wiki/TRPM1" title="TRPM1">TRPM1</a> gene located at horse chromosome 1 (ECA 1).<sup id="cite_ref-Bellone2010_16-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bellone2010-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Terry_17-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Terry-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup> All horses with at least one copy of LP show leopard characteristics, and it is hypothesized that LP acts together with other patterning genes (PATN) that have not yet been identified to produce the different coat patterns.<sup id="cite_ref-APstudies_12-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-APstudies-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup> Horses that are <a href="/wiki/Heterozygous" title="Heterozygous" class="mw-redirect">heterozygous</a> for LP tend to be darker than <a href="/wiki/Homozygous" title="Homozygous" class="mw-redirect">homozygous</a> horses, but this is not consistent.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2793_19-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2793-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Three <a href="/wiki/Single-nucleotide_polymorphism" title="Single-nucleotide polymorphism">single-nucleotide polymorphisms</a> (SNPs) in the TRPM1 gene have been identified as closely associated with the LP mutation, although the mechanism by which the pattern is produced remains unclear.<sup id="cite_ref-APstudies_12-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-APstudies-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Bellone2010_16-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bellone2010-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup> A commercially available DNA based test is likely to be developed in the near future, which breeders can use to determine if LP is present in horses that do not have visible Appaloosa characteristics.<sup id="cite_ref-APstudies_12-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-APstudies-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Bellone2010_16-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bellone2010-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Not every Appaloosa exhibits visible coat spotting, but even apparently solid-colored horses that carry at least one dominant LP allele will exhibit characteristics such as vertically striped hooves, white <a href="/wiki/Sclera" title="Sclera">sclera</a> of the eye, and mottled skin around the eyes, lips, and genitalia.<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup> Appaloosas may also exhibit <a href="/wiki/Sabino_horse" title="Sabino horse">sabino</a> or <a href="/wiki/Pinto_horse" title="Pinto horse">pinto</a> type markings, but because pinto genes may cover-up or obscure Appaloosa patterns, pinto breeding is discouraged by the ApHC, which will deny registration to horses with excessive white markings.<sup id="cite_ref-Rule205_21-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Rule205-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup> The genes that create these different patterns can all be present in the same horse. The Appaloosa Project, a genetic study group, has researched the interactions of Appaloosa and pinto genes and how they affect each other.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: History">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2>
<div class="thumb tleft">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Meulen.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Painting of a man holding a sword while riding a rearing horse" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7b/Meulen.jpg/220px-Meulen.jpg" width="220" height="183" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Meulen.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="//bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.20wmf12/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
A 1674 painting of <a href="/wiki/Louis_XIV" title="Louis XIV" class="mw-redirect">Louis XIV</a> on a spotted horse</div>
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<p>Recent research has suggested that Eurasian prehistoric cave paintings depicting leopard-spotted horses may have accurately reflected a <a href="/wiki/Phenotype" title="Phenotype">phenotype</a> of ancient wild horse.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup> Domesticated horses with leopard complex spotting patterns have been depicted in art dating as far back as Ancient Greece, <a href="/wiki/Persian_Empire" title="Persian Empire" class="mw-redirect">Ancient Persia</a>, and the <a href="/wiki/Han_Dynasty" title="Han Dynasty">Han Dynasty</a> in China; later depictions appeared in 11th-century France and 12th-century England.<sup id="cite_ref-Museum_25-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Museum-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Ancient_26-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ancient-26"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></a></sup> French paintings from the 16th and 17th centuries show horses with spotted coats being used as riding horses, and other records indicate they were also used as coach horses at the court of <a href="/wiki/Louis_XIV_of_France" title="Louis XIV of France">Louis XIV of France</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2712.E2.80.9316_27-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2712.E2.80.9316-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup> In mid-18th-century Europe, there was a great demand for horses with the leopard complex spotting pattern among the nobility and royalty. These horses were used in the schools of horsemanship, for parade use, and other forms of display.<sup id="cite_ref-HotSpots_28-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-HotSpots-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup> Modern horse breeds in Europe today that have leopard complex spotting include the <a href="/wiki/Knabstrupper" title="Knabstrupper">Knabstrupper</a> and the Pinzgau, or <a href="/wiki/Noriker_horse" title="Noriker horse">Noriker horse</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Museum_25-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Museum-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The Spanish probably obtained spotted horses through trade with southern Austria and Hungary, where the color pattern was known to exist.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27299_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27299-29"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Conquistador" title="Conquistador">Conquistadors</a> and Spanish settlers then brought some vividly marked horses to the <a href="/wiki/Americas" title="Americas">Americas</a> when <a href="/wiki/Evolution_of_the_horse#Return_to_the_Americas" title="Evolution of the horse">they first arrived</a> in the early 16th century.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27299_29-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27299-29"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2717.E2.80.9318_30-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2717.E2.80.9318-30"><span>[</span>31<span>]</span></a></sup> One horse with snowflake patterning was listed with the 16 horses brought to Mexico by <a href="/wiki/Hern%C3%A1n_Cort%C3%A9s" title="Hernán Cortés">Cortez</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27196_31-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27196-31"><span>[</span>32<span>]</span></a></sup> and additional spotted horses were mentioned by Spanish writers by 1604.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27207_32-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27207-32"><span>[</span>33<span>]</span></a></sup> Others arrived in the western hemisphere when spotted horses went out of style in late 18th-century Europe,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391_5-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> and were shipped to Mexico,<sup id="cite_ref-Meredith_33-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Meredith-33"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup> California and Oregon.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391_5-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Nez Perce people">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Nez_Perce_people">Nez Perce people</span></h3>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Nezperceindians1895ish.jpg" class="image"><img alt="In the foreground, two Native American men wearing cowboy attire sit crosslegged on the ground. In the background, a dark colored horse with a white and black spotted rump stands saddled and bridled." src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Nezperceindians1895ish.jpg/220px-Nezperceindians1895ish.jpg" width="220" height="174" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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Two Nez Perce men with an Appaloosa, about 1895</div>
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</div>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Nez_Perce_people" title="Nez Perce people">Nez Perce people</a> lived in what today is eastern <a href="/wiki/Washington_(U.S._state)" title="Washington (U.S. state)" class="mw-redirect">Washington</a>, <a href="/wiki/Oregon" title="Oregon">Oregon</a>, and western <a href="/wiki/Idaho" title="Idaho">Idaho</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.227_34-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.227-34"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup> where they engaged in agriculture as well as <a href="/wiki/Horse_breeding" title="Horse breeding">horse breeding</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27134_35-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27134-35"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup> The Nez Perce first obtained horses from the <a href="/wiki/Shoshone" title="Shoshone" class="mw-redirect">Shoshone</a> around 1730.<sup id="cite_ref-Meredith_33-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Meredith-33"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup> They took advantage of the fact that they lived in excellent horse-breeding country, relatively safe from the raids of other tribes, and developed strict breeding selection practices for their animals, establishing breeding herds by 1750. They were one of the few tribes that actively used the practice of <a href="/wiki/Gelding" title="Gelding">gelding</a> inferior male horses and trading away poorer stock to remove unsuitable animals from the gene pool,<sup id="cite_ref-Museum_25-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Museum-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Spencer_36-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Spencer-36"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup> and thus were notable as horse breeders by the early 19th century.<sup id="cite_ref-Appaloosa_History_37-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Appaloosa_History-37"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Early Nez Perce horses were considered to be of high quality. <a href="/wiki/Meriwether_Lewis" title="Meriwether Lewis">Meriwether Lewis</a> of the <a href="/wiki/Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition" title="Lewis and Clark Expedition">Lewis and Clark Expedition</a> wrote in his February 15, 1806, journal entry: "Their horses appear to be of an excellent race; they are lofty, eligantly [sic] formed, active and durable: in short many of them look like fine English coarsers [sic] and would make a figure in any country."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333_38-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup> Lewis did note spotting patterns, saying, "... some of these horses are pided [pied] with large spots of white irregularly scattered and intermixed with the black brown bey [sic] or some other dark colour".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333_38-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup> By "pied", Lewis may have been referring to leopard-spotted patterns seen in the modern Appaloosa,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333_38-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27390_39-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27390-39"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></a></sup> though Lewis also noted that "much the larger portion are of a uniform colour".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333_38-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Appaloosa_Horse_Club" title="Appaloosa Horse Club">Appaloosa Horse Club</a> estimates that only about ten percent of the horses owned by the Nez Perce at the time were spotted.<sup id="cite_ref-Appaloosa_History_37-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Appaloosa_History-37"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup> While the Nez Perce originally had many solid-colored horses and only began to emphasize color in their breeding some time after the visit of Lewis and Clark, they had many spotted horses by the late 19th century.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27390.2C_392_40-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27390.2C_392-40"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></a></sup> As white settlers moved into traditional Nez Perce lands, a successful trade in horses enriched the Nez Perce, who in 1861 bred horses described as "elegant chargers, fit to mount a prince."<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.2214_41-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.2214-41"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup> At a time when ordinary horses could be purchased for $15, non-Indians who had purchased Appaloosa horses from the Nez Perce turned down offers of as much as $600.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2282_42-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2282-42"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Nez Perce War">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Nez_Perce_War">Nez Perce War</span></h3>
<div class="rellink boilerplate seealso">See also: <a href="/wiki/Nez_Perce_War" title="Nez Perce War">Nez Perce War</a></div>
<p>Peace with the United States dated back to an alliance arranged by Lewis and Clark,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936_43-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936-43"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></a></sup> but the encroachment of gold miners in the 1860s and settlers in the 1870s put pressure on the Nez Perce.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136-44"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup> Although a treaty of 1855 originally allowed them to keep most of their traditional land, another in 1863 reduced the land alloted to them by 90&#160;percent.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.229_45-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.229-45"><span>[</span>46<span>]</span></a></sup> The Nez Perce who refused to give up their land under the 1863 treaty included a band living in the Wallowa Valley of Oregon, led by Heinmot Tooyalakekt, widely known as <a href="/wiki/Chief_Joseph" title="Chief Joseph">Chief Joseph</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.224_46-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.224-46"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></a></sup> Tensions rose, and in May 1877, General <a href="/wiki/Oliver_Howard" title="Oliver Howard" class="mw-redirect">Oliver Howard</a> called a council and ordered the non-treaty bands to move to the reservation.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136-44"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.2214.E2.80.9315_47-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.2214.E2.80.9315-47"><span>[</span>48<span>]</span></a></sup> Chief Joseph considered military resistance futile,<sup id="cite_ref-PBS_48-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PBS-48"><span>[</span>49<span>]</span></a></sup> and by June 14, 1877, had gathered about 600 people at a site near present-day <a href="/wiki/Grangeville,_Idaho" title="Grangeville, Idaho">Grangeville, Idaho</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936_43-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936-43"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></a></sup> But on that day a small group of warriors staged an attack on nearby white settlers,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136-44"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup> which led to the Nez Perce War.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936_43-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936-43"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></a></sup> After several small battles in Idaho,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936_43-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936-43"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></a></sup> more than 800&#160;Nez Perce, mostly non-warriors, took 2000 head of various livestock including horses and fled into <a href="/wiki/Montana" title="Montana">Montana</a>, then traveled southeast, dipping into <a href="/wiki/Yellowstone_National_Park" title="Yellowstone National Park">Yellowstone National Park</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136-44"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.224_46-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.224-46"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></a></sup> A small number of Nez Perce fighters, probably fewer than 200,<sup id="cite_ref-PBS_48-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PBS-48"><span>[</span>49<span>]</span></a></sup> successfully held off larger forces of the U.S. Army in several skirmishes, including the two-day <a href="/wiki/Battle_of_the_Big_Hole" title="Battle of the Big Hole">Battle of the Big Hole</a> in southwestern Montana.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136-44"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup> They then moved northeast and attempted to seek refuge with the <a href="/wiki/Crow_Nation" title="Crow Nation">Crow Nation</a>; rebuffed, they headed for safety in Canada.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136-44"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Throughout this journey of about 1,400 miles (2,300&#160;km)<sup id="cite_ref-PBS_48-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PBS-48"><span>[</span>49<span>]</span></a></sup> the Nez Perce relied heavily on their fast, agile and hardy Appaloosa horses.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2792.E2.80.9395_49-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2792.E2.80.9395-49"><span>[</span>50<span>]</span></a></sup> The journey came to an end when they stopped to rest near the <a href="/wiki/Bears_Paw_Mountains" title="Bears Paw Mountains" class="mw-redirect">Bears Paw Mountains</a> in Montana, 40 miles (64&#160;km) from the Canadian border. Unbeknownst to the Nez Perce, Colonel <a href="/wiki/Nelson_A._Miles" title="Nelson A. Miles">Nelson A. Miles</a> had led an infantry-cavalry column from <a href="/wiki/Fort_Keogh" title="Fort Keogh">Fort Keogh</a> in pursuit. On October 5, 1877, after a five-day fight, Joseph surrendered. The battle—and the war—was over.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2792.E2.80.9395_49-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2792.E2.80.9395-49"><span>[</span>50<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27138_50-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27138-50"><span>[</span>51<span>]</span></a></sup> With most of the war chiefs dead, and the noncombatants cold and starving, Joseph declared that he would "fight no more forever".<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27138_50-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27138-50"><span>[</span>51<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2723_51-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2723-51"><span>[</span>52<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Aftermath of the Nez Perce War">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Aftermath_of_the_Nez_Perce_War">Aftermath of the Nez Perce War</span></h3>
<p>When the U.S. 7th Cavalry accepted the surrender of Chief Joseph and the remaining Nez Perce, they immediately took more than 1,000 of the tribe's horses, sold what they could and shot many of the rest. But a significant population of horses had been left behind in the Wallowa valley when the Nez Perce began their retreat, and additional animals escaped or were abandoned along the way.<sup id="cite_ref-Museum_25-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Museum-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup> The Nez Perce were ultimately settled on <a href="/wiki/Nez_Perce_tribe#Nez_Perce_Indian_Reservation" title="Nez Perce tribe" class="mw-redirect">reservation lands</a> in north central Idaho,<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52"><span>[</span>a<span>]</span></a></sup> were allowed few horses, and were required by the Army to <a href="/wiki/Crossbreed" title="Crossbreed">crossbreed</a> to <a href="/wiki/Draft_horse" title="Draft horse">draft horses</a> in an attempt to create farm horses.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2724.E2.80.9325_53-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2724.E2.80.9325-53"><span>[</span>53<span>]</span></a></sup> The Nez Perce tribe never regained its former position as breeders of Appaloosas, but in the late 20th century they began a program to develop a new horse breed, the <a href="/wiki/Nez_Perce_horse" title="Nez Perce horse" class="mw-redirect">Nez Perce horse</a>, with the intent to resurrect their horse culture, tradition of selective breeding, and horsemanship.<sup id="cite_ref-Murphy_54-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Murphy-54"><span>[</span>54<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Although a remnant population of Appaloosa horses remained after 1877, they were virtually forgotten as a distinct breed for almost 60&#160;years.<sup id="cite_ref-Museum_25-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Museum-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup> A few quality horses continued to be bred, mostly those captured or purchased by settlers and used as working <a href="/wiki/Ranch" title="Ranch">ranch</a> horses. Others were used in circuses and related forms of entertainment such as <a href="/wiki/Buffalo_Bill%27s_Wild_West" title="Buffalo Bill's Wild West" class="mw-redirect">Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2796.E2.80.9398_55-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2796.E2.80.9398-55"><span>[</span>55<span>]</span></a></sup> The horses were originally called "Palouse horses" by settlers, a reference to the <a href="/wiki/Palouse_River" title="Palouse River">Palouse River</a> that ran through the heart of what was once Nez Perce country.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27296.E2.80.93297_56-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27296.E2.80.93297-56"><span>[</span>56<span>]</span></a></sup> Gradually, the name evolved into "Apalouse", and then "Appaloosa".<sup id="cite_ref-Spencer_36-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Spencer-36"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27296.E2.80.93297_56-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27296.E2.80.93297-56"><span>[</span>56<span>]</span></a></sup> Other early variations of the name included "Appalucy", "Apalousey" and "Appaloosie". In one 1948 book, the breed was called the "Opelousa horse", described as a "hardy tough breed of Indian and Spanish horse" used by backwoodsmen of the late 18th century to transport goods to New Orleans for sale. By the 1950s, "Appaloosa" was regarded as the correct spelling.<sup id="cite_ref-Meredith_33-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Meredith-33"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57"><span>[</span>57<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Revitalization">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Revitalization">Revitalization</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:AppyPlate.jpg" class="image"><img alt="An Idaho car license plate with a running horse on the left side. The horse is brown with a brown and white spotted rump" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/05/AppyPlate.jpg/220px-AppyPlate.jpg" width="220" height="120" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:AppyPlate.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="//bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.20wmf12/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
The state of Idaho offers a license plate featuring the Appaloosa horse.</div>
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<p>The Appaloosa came to the attention of the general public in January 1937 in <i><a href="/wiki/Western_Horseman" title="Western Horseman">Western Horseman</a></i> magazine when Francis D. Haines, a history professor from <a href="/wiki/Lewiston,_Idaho" title="Lewiston, Idaho">Lewiston, Idaho</a>, published an article describing the breed's history and urging its preservation.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2282_42-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2282-42"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></a></sup> Haines had performed extensive research, traveling with a friend and Appaloosa aficionado named George Hatley, visiting numerous Nez Perce villages, collecting history, and taking photographs.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2283_58-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2283-58"><span>[</span>58<span>]</span></a></sup> The article generated strong interest in the horse breed, and led to the founding of the <a href="/wiki/Appaloosa_Horse_Club" title="Appaloosa Horse Club">Appaloosa Horse Club</a> (ApHC) by Claude Thompson and a small group of other dedicated breeders in 1938.<sup id="cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHC_History-59"><span>[</span>59<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2798_60-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2798-60"><span>[</span>60<span>]</span></a></sup> The registry was originally housed in <a href="/wiki/Moro,_Oregon" title="Moro, Oregon">Moro, Oregon</a>;<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2798_60-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2798-60"><span>[</span>60<span>]</span></a></sup> but in 1947 the organization moved to <a href="/wiki/Moscow,_Idaho" title="Moscow, Idaho">Moscow, Idaho</a>, under the leadership of George Hatley.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2283_58-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2283-58"><span>[</span>58<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHC_History-59"><span>[</span>59<span>]</span></a></sup> The Appaloosa Museum foundation was formed in 1975 to preserve the history of the Appaloosa horse.<sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61"><span>[</span>61<span>]</span></a></sup> The <i>Western Horseman</i> magazine, and particularly its longtime publisher, Dick Spencer, continued to support and promote the breed through many subsequent articles.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2283.E2.80.9384_62-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2283.E2.80.9384-62"><span>[</span>62<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>A significant <a href="/wiki/Crossbreed" title="Crossbreed">crossbreeding</a> influence used to revitalize the Appaloosa was the <a href="/wiki/Arabian_horse" title="Arabian horse">Arabian horse</a>, as evidenced by early registration lists that show Arabian-Appaloosa crossbreeds as ten of the first fifteen horses registered with the ApHC.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._1.27.27_63-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._1.27.27-63"><span>[</span>63<span>]</span></a></sup> For example, one of Claude Thompson's major herd sires was Ferras, an Arabian stallion bred by <a href="/wiki/Will_Keith_Kellogg" title="Will Keith Kellogg">W.K. Kellogg</a> from horses imported from the <a href="/wiki/Crabbet_Arabian_Stud" title="Crabbet Arabian Stud">Crabbet Arabian Stud</a> of England.<sup id="cite_ref-Thompson_64-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Thompson-64"><span>[</span>64<span>]</span></a></sup> Ferras then sired Red Eagle, a prominent Appaloosa stallion,<sup id="cite_ref-Thompson_64-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Thompson-64"><span>[</span>64<span>]</span></a></sup> who was added to the Appaloosa Hall of Fame in 1988. Later, <a href="/wiki/Thoroughbred" title="Thoroughbred">Thoroughbred</a> and <a href="/wiki/American_Quarter_Horse" title="American Quarter Horse">Quarter Horse</a> lines were added, as well as crosses from other breeds, including <a href="/wiki/Morgan_horse" title="Morgan horse">Morgans</a> and <a href="/wiki/Standardbred_horse" title="Standardbred horse" class="mw-redirect">Standardbreds</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._2_.26_3.27.27_65-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._2_.26_3.27.27-65"><span>[</span>65<span>]</span></a></sup> In 1983 the ApHC reduced the number of allowable outcrosses to three main breeds: the Arabian horse, the American Quarter Horse and the Thoroughbred.<sup id="cite_ref-Rule204_66-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Rule204-66"><span>[</span>66<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>By 1978 the ApHC was the third largest horse registry for light horse breeds.<sup id="cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHC_History-59"><span>[</span>59<span>]</span></a></sup> From 1938 to 2007 more than 670,000&#160;Appaloosas were registered by the ApHC.<sup id="cite_ref-Facts_67-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Facts-67"><span>[</span>67<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68"><span>[</span>68<span>]</span></a></sup> The state of <a href="/wiki/Idaho" title="Idaho">Idaho</a> adopted the Appaloosa as its official state horse on March 25, 1975, when Idaho Governor <a href="/wiki/Cecil_D._Andrus" title="Cecil D. Andrus">Cecil Andrus</a> signed the enabling legislation.<sup id="cite_ref-Appaloosa_History_37-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Appaloosa_History-37"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup> Idaho even offers a custom license plate featuring an Appaloosa horse,<sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-69"><span>[</span>69<span>]</span></a></sup> the first state to offer a plate featuring a state horse.<sup id="cite_ref-70" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-70"><span>[</span>70<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Registration">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Registration">Registration</span></h2>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Appaloosa_Horse_Club" title="Appaloosa Horse Club">Appaloosa Horse Club</a></div>
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A <a href="/wiki/Pinto_horse" title="Pinto horse">Pinto horse</a> (left) has different markings than a Leopard Appaloosa (right). <i>Photo credit: Jean-Pol Grandmont</i></div>
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<p>Located in Moscow, Idaho, the ApHC is the principal body for the promotion and preservation of the Appaloosa breed and considers itself an international organization.<sup id="cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHC_History-59"><span>[</span>59<span>]</span></a></sup> Affiliate Appaloosa organizations exist in many South American and European countries, as well as South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Mexico and Israel.<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71"><span>[</span>71<span>]</span></a></sup> The Appaloosa Horse Club has 33,000 members as of 2010,<sup id="cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHC_History-59"><span>[</span>59<span>]</span></a></sup> and the circulation of the <i>Appaloosa Journal</i>, which is included with most types of membership, was at 32,000 in 2008.<sup id="cite_ref-Circ_72-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Circ-72"><span>[</span>72<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-membership_73-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-membership-73"><span>[</span>73<span>]</span></a></sup> Other organizations exist; the American Appaloosa Association was founded in 1983 by members opposed to the registration of plain-colored horses as a result of the <a href="/wiki/Appaloosa#Color_rule_controversy" title="Appaloosa">color rule controversy</a>. Based in Missouri, it has a membership of more than 2,000 as of 2008.<sup id="cite_ref-amapp_74-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-amapp-74"><span>[</span>74<span>]</span></a></sup> There are other "Appaloosa" registries not affiliated with the ApHC for horses with leopard complex genetics. These registries tend to have different <a href="/wiki/Foundation_bloodstock" title="Foundation bloodstock">foundation breeding</a> and histories than the North American Appaloosa.<sup id="cite_ref-75" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-75"><span>[</span>75<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76"><span>[</span>76<span>]</span></a></sup> However, the ApHC is by far the largest Appaloosa horse registry,<sup id="cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHC_History-59"><span>[</span>59<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77"><span>[</span>77<span>]</span></a></sup> and it hosts one of the world's largest breed shows.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans.2C_.27.27Horses.27.27132_78-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans.2C_.27.27Horses.27.27132-78"><span>[</span>78<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>The Appaloosa is "a breed defined by ApHC bloodline requirements and preferred characteristics, including coat pattern".<sup id="cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHCrules-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> In other words, the Appaloosa is a distinct breed from limited bloodlines with distinct physical traits and a desired color, referred to as a "color preference". Therefore Appaloosas are not strictly a "<a href="/wiki/Color_breed" title="Color breed">color breed</a>". All ApHC-registered Appaloosas must be the offspring of two registered Appaloosa parents or a registered Appaloosa and a horse from an approved breed registry, which includes Arabian horses, Quarter Horses, and Thoroughbreds. In all cases, one parent must always be a regular registered Appaloosa. The only exception to the bloodline requirements is in the case of Appaloosa-colored geldings or spayed mares with unknown pedigrees; owners may apply for "hardship registration" for these non-breeding horses. The ApHC does not accept horses with draft, pony, Pinto, or Paint breeding, and requires mature Appaloosas to stand, unshod, at least 14&#160;<a href="/wiki/Hand_(length)" title="Hand (length)" class="mw-redirect">hands</a> (56&#160;inches, 142&#160;cm).<sup id="cite_ref-Rule205_21-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Rule205-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup> If a horse has excessive white markings not associated with the Appaloosa pattern (such as those characteristic of a pinto) it cannot be registered unless it is verified through DNA testing that both parents have ApHC registration.<sup id="cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHCrules-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Certain other characteristics are used to determine if a horse receives "regular" registration: striped hooves, white sclera visible when the eye is in a normal position, and mottled (spotted) skin around the eyes, lips, and genitalia. The Appaloosa is one of the few horse breeds to exhibit skin mottling, and therefore this characteristic "...is a very basic and decisive indication of an Appaloosa."<sup id="cite_ref-Rule128_1-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Rule128-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> Appaloosas born with visible coat pattern, or mottled skin and at least one other characteristic, are registered with "regular" papers and have full show and breeding privileges. A horse that meets bloodline requirements but is born without the recognized color pattern and characteristics can still be registered with the ApHC as a "non-characteristic" Appaloosa. These solid-colored, "non-characteristic" Appaloosas may not be shown at ApHC events unless the owner verifies the parentage through DNA testing and pays a supplementary fee to enter the horse into the ApHC's Performance Permit Program (PPP).<sup id="cite_ref-79" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-79"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></a></sup> Solid-colored Appaloosas also have breeding restrictions.<sup id="cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHCrules-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Color rule controversy">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Color_rule_controversy">Color rule controversy</span></h3>
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Mare and foal. The ApHC encourages early foal registration, even though coat patterns may change later.<sup id="cite_ref-80" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-80"><span>[</span>80<span>]</span></a></sup></div>
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<p>During the 1940s and 1950s, when both the Appaloosa Horse Club (ApHC) and the <a href="/wiki/American_Quarter_Horse_Association" title="American Quarter Horse Association">American Quarter Horse Association</a> (AQHA) were in their formative years, minimally marked or roan Appaloosas were sometimes used in Quarter Horse breeding programs.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHolmes.2C_.27.27Spotted_Pride.27.27165_81-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHolmes.2C_.27.27Spotted_Pride.27.27165-81"><span>[</span>81<span>]</span></a></sup> At the same time, it was noted that two solid-colored registered Quarter Horse parents would sometimes produce what Quarter Horse aficionados call a "<a href="/wiki/Cropout" title="Cropout">cropout</a>", a foal with white coloration similar to that of an Appaloosa or <a href="/wiki/Pinto_horse" title="Pinto horse">Pinto</a>. For a considerable time, until DNA testing could verify parentage, the AQHA refused to register such horses. The ApHC did accept cropout horses that exhibited proper Appaloosa traits, while cropout pintos became the core of the <a href="/wiki/American_Paint_Horse_Association" title="American Paint Horse Association">American Paint Horse Association</a>. Famous Appaloosas who were cropouts included Colida, Joker B, Bright Eyes Brother and Wapiti.<sup id="cite_ref-82" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-82"><span>[</span>82<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>In the late 1970s the color controversy went in the opposite direction within the Appaloosa registry. The ApHC's decision in 1982 to allow solid-colored or "non-characteristic" Appaloosas to be registered resulted in substantial debate within the Appaloosa breeding community.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStanger.2C_.27.27Fifty_Years_of_Appaloosa_History.27.27163_83-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEStanger.2C_.27.27Fifty_Years_of_Appaloosa_History.27.27163-83"><span>[</span>83<span>]</span></a></sup> Until then, a foal of Appaloosa parents that had insufficient color was often denied registration, although non-characteristic Appaloosas were allowed into the registry. But breeder experience had shown that some solid Appaloosas could throw a spotted foal in a subsequent generation, at least when bred to a spotted Appaloosa. In addition, many horses with a solid coat nevertheless exhibited secondary characteristics such as skin mottling, the white sclera, and striped hooves.<sup id="cite_ref-84" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-84"><span>[</span>84<span>]</span></a></sup> The controversy stirred by the ApHC's decision was intense, and a number of Appaloosa breeders formed a breakaway organization in 1983.<sup id="cite_ref-amapp_74-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-amapp-74"><span>[</span>74<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: Uses">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Uses">Uses</span></h2>
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<div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Chief_Osceola_on_Renegade_FSU.jpg" class="image"><img alt="A brown and white spotted horse ridden by a sports mascot in modern-day Native American attire waving a flag stands on a sports field. More people are visible on the field, and a large crowd fills the stadium seating in the background." src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Chief_Osceola_on_Renegade_FSU.jpg/170px-Chief_Osceola_on_Renegade_FSU.jpg" width="170" height="227" class="thumbimage" /></a>
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A leopard Appaloosa is part of the mascot team for the Florida State University Seminoles.</div>
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<p>Appaloosas are used extensively for both <a href="/wiki/Western_riding" title="Western riding">Western</a> and <a href="/wiki/English_riding" title="English riding">English riding</a>. Western competitions include <a href="/wiki/Cutting_(sport)" title="Cutting (sport)">cutting</a>, <a href="/wiki/Reining" title="Reining">reining</a>, <a href="/wiki/Team_Roping" title="Team Roping" class="mw-redirect">roping</a> and <a href="/wiki/Gymkhana_(equestrian)" title="Gymkhana (equestrian)">O-Mok-See</a> sports such as <a href="/wiki/Barrel_Racing" title="Barrel Racing" class="mw-redirect">barrel racing</a> (known as the <a href="/wiki/Camas_Prairie_Stump_Race" title="Camas Prairie Stump Race" class="mw-redirect">Camas Prairie Stump Race</a> in Appaloosa-only competition) and <a href="/wiki/Pole_bending" title="Pole bending">pole bending</a> (called the <a href="/wiki/Nez_Perc%C3%A9_Stake_Race" title="Nez Percé Stake Race" class="mw-redirect">Nez Percé Stake Race</a> at breed shows). English disciplines they are used in include <a href="/wiki/Eventing" title="Eventing">eventing</a>, <a href="/wiki/Show_jumping" title="Show jumping">show jumping</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Fox_hunting" title="Fox hunting">fox hunting</a>. They are common in <a href="/wiki/Endurance_riding" title="Endurance riding">endurance riding</a> competitions, as well as in casual <a href="/wiki/Trail_riding" title="Trail riding">trail riding</a>. Appaloosas are also bred for <a href="/wiki/Horse_racing" title="Horse racing">horse racing</a>, with an active breed racing association promoting the sport. They are generally used for middle-distance racing at distances between 350 yards (320&#160;m) and 0.5 miles (0.80&#160;km); an Appaloosa holds the all-breed record for the 4.5 furlongs (3,000&#160;ft; 910&#160;m) distance, set in 1989.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDutson.2C_.27.27Storey.27s_Illustrated_Guide_to_96_Horse_Breeds_of_North_America.27.2774.E2.80.9378_85-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEDutson.2C_.27.27Storey.27s_Illustrated_Guide_to_96_Horse_Breeds_of_North_America.27.2774.E2.80.9378-85"><span>[</span>85<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-86" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-86"><span>[</span>86<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Appaloosas are often used in <a href="/wiki/Western_Movie" title="Western Movie" class="mw-redirect">Western movies</a> and television series. Examples include "Cojo Rojo" in the <a href="/wiki/Marlon_Brando" title="Marlon Brando">Marlon Brando</a> film <i><a href="/wiki/The_Appaloosa" title="The Appaloosa">The Appaloosa</a></i>,<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilson.2C_.27.27Animal_Movies_Guide.27.27161_87-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilson.2C_.27.27Animal_Movies_Guide.27.27161-87"><span>[</span>87<span>]</span></a></sup> "Zip Cochise" ridden by <a href="/wiki/John_Wayne" title="John Wayne">John Wayne</a> in the 1966 film <i><a href="/wiki/El_Dorado_(1966_film)" title="El Dorado (1966 film)">El Dorado</a></i><sup id="cite_ref-88" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-88"><span>[</span>88<span>]</span></a></sup> and "Cowboy", the mount of <a href="/wiki/Matt_Damon" title="Matt Damon">Matt Damon</a> in <i><a href="/wiki/True_Grit_(2010_film)" title="True Grit (2010 film)">True Grit</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-89" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-89"><span>[</span>89<span>]</span></a></sup> An Appaloosa horse is part of the controversial mascot team for the Florida State Seminoles, <a href="/wiki/Chief_Osceola_and_Renegade" title="Chief Osceola and Renegade" class="mw-redirect">Chief Osceola and Renegade</a>, even though the Seminole people were not directly associated with Appaloosa horses.<sup id="cite_ref-90" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-90"><span>[</span>90<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Influence">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Influence">Influence</span></h3>
<p>There are several American horse breeds with leopard coloring and Appaloosa ancestry. These include the <a href="/wiki/Pony_of_the_Americas" title="Pony of the Americas">Pony of the Americas</a><sup id="cite_ref-POA_91-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-POA-91"><span>[</span>91<span>]</span></a></sup> and the <a href="/wiki/Colorado_Ranger" title="Colorado Ranger">Colorado Ranger</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Ranger_92-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ranger-92"><span>[</span>92<span>]</span></a></sup> Appaloosas are <a href="/wiki/Crossbreed" title="Crossbreed">crossbred</a> with <a href="/wiki/Gaited_horse" title="Gaited horse" class="mw-redirect">gaited horse</a> breeds in an attempt to create a leopard-spotted <a href="/wiki/Ambling" title="Ambling">ambling</a> horse.<sup id="cite_ref-93" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-93"><span>[</span>b<span>]</span></a></sup> Because such crossbred offspring are not eligible for ApHC registration,<sup id="cite_ref-94" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-94"><span>[</span>93<span>]</span></a></sup> their owners have formed breed registries for horses with leopard complex patterns and gaited ability.<sup id="cite_ref-95" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-95"><span>[</span>94<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-96" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-96"><span>[</span>95<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-97" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-97"><span>[</span>96<span>]</span></a></sup> In 1995 the Nez Perce tribe began a program to develop a new and distinct horse breed, the <a href="/wiki/Nez_Perce_Horse" title="Nez Perce Horse">Nez Perce Horse</a>, based on <a href="/wiki/Crossbreed" title="Crossbreed">crossbreeding</a> the Appaloosa with the <a href="/wiki/Akhal-Teke" title="Akhal-Teke">Akhal-Teke</a> breed from Central Asia.<sup id="cite_ref-Murphy_54-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Murphy-54"><span>[</span>54<span>]</span></a></sup> Appaloosa stallions have been exported to Denmark, to add new blood to the Knabstrup breed.<sup id="cite_ref-98" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-98"><span>[</span>97<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section: Health issues">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Health_issues">Health issues</span></h2>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section: Genetically linked blindness">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Genetically_linked_blindness">Genetically linked blindness</span></h3>
<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Leopard_complex#Vision_issues" title="Leopard complex">Leopard complex#Vision issues</a></div>
<p>Appaloosas have an eightfold greater risk of developing <a href="/wiki/Equine_Recurrent_Uveitis" title="Equine Recurrent Uveitis">Equine Recurrent Uveitis</a> (ERU) than all other breeds combined. Up to 25&#160;percent of all horses with ERU may be Appaloosas. <a href="/wiki/Uveitis" title="Uveitis">Uveitis</a> in horses has many causes, including eye trauma, disease, and bacterial, parasitic and viral infections, but ERU is characterized by recurring episodes of uveitis, rather than a single incident. If not treated, ERU can lead to blindness, which occurs more often in Appaloosas than in other breeds.<sup id="cite_ref-99" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-99"><span>[</span>98<span>]</span></a></sup> Eighty&#160;percent of all uveitis cases are found in Appaloosas with physical characteristics including roan or light-colored coat patterns, little pigment around the eyelids and sparse hair in the mane and tail denoting the most at-risk individuals.<sup id="cite_ref-100" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-100"><span>[</span>99<span>]</span></a></sup> Researchers may have identified a gene region containing an <a href="/wiki/Allele" title="Allele">allele</a> that makes the breed more susceptible to the disease.<sup id="cite_ref-101" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-101"><span>[</span>100<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Appaloosas that are <a href="/wiki/Homozygous" title="Homozygous" class="mw-redirect">homozygous</a> for the <a href="/wiki/Leopard_complex" title="Leopard complex">leopard complex</a> (LP) <a href="/wiki/Gene" title="Gene">gene</a> are also at risk for <a href="/wiki/Nyctalopia" title="Nyctalopia">congenital stationary night blindness</a> (CSNB).<sup id="cite_ref-CSNBstudies_102-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CSNBstudies-102"><span>[</span>101<span>]</span></a></sup> This form of <a href="/wiki/Night_blindness" title="Night blindness" class="mw-redirect">night blindness</a> has been linked with the leopard complex since the 1970s,<sup id="cite_ref-witzel1977_103-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-witzel1977-103"><span>[</span>102<span>]</span></a></sup> and in 2007 a "significant association" between LP and CSNB was identified.<sup id="cite_ref-CSNBstudies_102-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-CSNBstudies-102"><span>[</span>101<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Sandmeyer2007_104-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sandmeyer2007-104"><span>[</span>103<span>]</span></a></sup> CSNB is a disorder that causes an affected animal to lack night vision, although day vision is normal. It is an inherited disorder, present from birth, and does not progress over time.<sup id="cite_ref-105" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-105"><span>[</span>104<span>]</span></a></sup> Studies in 2008 and 2010 indicate that both CSNB and leopard complex spotting patterns are linked to <a href="/wiki/TRPM1" title="TRPM1">TRPM1</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Bellone2010_16-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Bellone2010-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-106" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-106"><span>[</span>105<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Drug rules">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Drug_rules">Drug rules</span></h3>
<p>In 2007 the ApHC implemented new drug rules allowing Appaloosas to show with the drugs <a href="/wiki/Furosemide" title="Furosemide">furosemide</a>, known by the trade name of Lasix, and <a href="/wiki/Acetazolamide" title="Acetazolamide">acetazolamide</a>. Furosemide is used to prevent horses who bleed from the nose when subjected to strenuous work from having bleeding episodes when in competition, and is widely used in horse racing. Acetazolamide ("Acet") is used for treating horses with the genetic disease <a href="/wiki/Hyperkalemic_periodic_paralysis" title="Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis">hyperkalemic periodic paralysis</a> (HYPP), and prevents affected animals from having seizures.<sup id="cite_ref-107" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-107"><span>[</span>c<span>]</span></a></sup> Acet is only allowed for horses that test positive for HYPP and have HYPP status noted on their registration papers.<sup id="cite_ref-108" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-108"><span>[</span>106<span>]</span></a></sup> The ApHC recommends that Appaloosas that trace to certain <a href="/wiki/American_Quarter_Horse" title="American Quarter Horse">American Quarter Horse</a> bloodlines be tested for HYPP, and owners have the option to choose to place HYPP testing results on registration papers.<sup id="cite_ref-109" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-109"><span>[</span>107<span>]</span></a></sup> Foals of AQHA-registered stallions and mares born on or after January 1, 2007 that carry HYPP will be required to be HYPP tested and have their HYPP status designated on their registration papers.<sup id="cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ApHCrules-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
<p>Both drugs are controversial, in part because they are considered drug maskers and <a href="/wiki/Diuretic" title="Diuretic">diuretics</a> that can make it difficult to detect the presence of other drugs in the horse's system.<sup id="cite_ref-110" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-110"><span>[</span>108<span>]</span></a></sup> On one side, it is argued that the <a href="/wiki/United_States_Equestrian_Federation" title="United States Equestrian Federation">United States Equestrian Federation</a> (USEF), which sponsors show competition for many different <a href="/wiki/List_of_horse_breeds" title="List of horse breeds">horse breeds</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-111" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-111"><span>[</span>109<span>]</span></a></sup> and the <a href="/wiki/International_Federation_for_Equestrian_Sports" title="International Federation for Equestrian Sports">International Federation for Equestrian Sports</a> (FEI), which governs international and <a href="/wiki/Equestrian_at_the_Summer_Olympics" title="Equestrian at the Summer Olympics">Olympic</a> equestrian competition, ban the use of furosemide.<sup id="cite_ref-112" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-112"><span>[</span>110<span>]</span></a></sup> On the other side of the controversy, several major stock horse registries that sanction their own shows, including the <a href="/wiki/American_Quarter_Horse_Association" title="American Quarter Horse Association">American Quarter Horse Association</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-113" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-113"><span>[</span>111<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/wiki/American_Paint_Horse_Association" title="American Paint Horse Association">American Paint Horse Association</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-114" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-114"><span>[</span>112<span>]</span></a></sup> and the <a href="/wiki/Palomino" title="Palomino">Palomino</a> Horse Breeders of America,<sup id="cite_ref-PHBA_115-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-PHBA-115"><span>[</span>113<span>]</span></a></sup> allow acetazolamide and furosemide to be used within 24&#160;hours of showing under certain circumstances.</p>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" title="Edit section: Notes">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Notes">Notes</span></h2>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: lower-alpha;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-52">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Chief Joseph and his band were settled in central Washington on the <a href="/wiki/Colville_Indian_Reservation" title="Colville Indian Reservation">Colville Indian Reservation</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.224_46-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.224-46"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></a></sup></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-93"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-93">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Such breeds include the <a href="/wiki/Walkaloosa" title="Walkaloosa">Walkaloosa</a>, <a href="/wiki/Spanish_Jennet_Horse" title="Spanish Jennet Horse">Spanish Jennet Horse</a> and <a href="/wiki/Tiger_horse" title="Tiger horse">Tiger horse</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-107"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-107">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Acetazolamide is not to be confused with <a href="/wiki/Acepromazine" title="Acepromazine">acepromazine</a> ("Ace"), a <a href="/wiki/Sedative" title="Sedative">tranquilizer</a>, which is illegal in all forms of competition.</span></li>
</ol>
</div>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section: Footnotes">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Footnotes">Footnotes</span></h2>
<div class="reflist references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 30em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-ApHCrules-0"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ApHCrules_0-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">"2012 Appaloosa Horse Club Handbook"</a> (PDF). Appaloosa Horse Club. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20110422185434/http://appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">Archived</a> from the original on 22 April 2011<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved April 2, 2011</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=2012+Appaloosa+Horse+Club+Handbook&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fregistration%2Fhandbook.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Rule128-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Rule128_1-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Rule128_1-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">"2012 Appaloosa Horse Club Handbook"</a> (PDF). Appaloosa Horse Club. pp.&#160;Rule 128<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved April 2, 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=2012+Appaloosa+Horse+Club+Handbook&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3BRule+128&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fregistration%2Fhandbook.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Identify-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-7"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-8"><sup><i><b>i</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-9"><sup><i><b>j</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-10"><sup><i><b>k</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Identify_2-11"><sup><i><b>l</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/indentify.htm">"Guide to Identifying an Appaloosa"</a>. Appaloosa Horse Club. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20101211220821/http://appaloosa.com/registration/indentify.htm">Archived</a> from the original on 11 December 2010<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/indentify.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/indentify.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved December 10, 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Guide+to+Identifying+an+Appaloosa&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fregistration%2Findentify.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.amappaloosa.com/mainpage.cfm?contentid=147">"Characteristics of the Appaloosa"</a>. American Appaloosa Association Worldwide. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20101025085808/http://amappaloosa.com/mainpage.cfm?contentid=147">Archived</a> from the original on 25 October 2010<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.amappaloosa.com/mainpage.cfm?contentid=147">http://www.amappaloosa.com/mainpage.cfm?contentid=147</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved November 13, 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Characteristics+of+the+Appaloosa&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=American+Appaloosa+Association+Worldwide&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.amappaloosa.com%2Fmainpage.cfm%3Fcontentid%3D147&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27392-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27392_4-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27392_4-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27392_4-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27">Bennett, <i>Conquerors</i></a>, p.&#160;392.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391_5-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391_5-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391_5-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27391_5-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27">Bennett, <i>Conquerors</i></a>, p.&#160;391.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27170-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27170_6-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27">Bennett, <i>Conquerors</i></a>, p.&#160;170.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27308-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27308_7-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27">Bennett, <i>Conquerors</i></a>, p.&#160;308.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2727.E2.80.9328-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2727.E2.80.9328_8-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2727.E2.80.9328_8-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFRichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.27">Richardson, <i>Appaloosa</i></a>, pp.&#160;27–28.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2790.E2.80.9391_9-7"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.27">Sponenberg, <i>Equine Color Genetics</i></a>, pp.&#160;90–91.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27393-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27393_10-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27">Bennett, <i>Conquerors</i></a>, p.&#160;393.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHarris.2C_.27.27Horse_Breeds_of_the_West.27.2712-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHarris.2C_.27.27Horse_Breeds_of_the_West.27.2712_11-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHarris.2C_.27.27Horse_Breeds_of_the_West.27.27">Harris, <i>Horse Breeds of the West</i></a>, p.&#160;12.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-APstudies-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-APstudies_12-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-APstudies_12-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-APstudies_12-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-APstudies_12-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-APstudies_12-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-APstudies_12-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Archer, Sheila. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosaproject.com/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=1&amp;MMN_position=5:5">"The Appaloosa Project: Studies Currently Underway"</a>. The Appaloosa Project<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosaproject.com/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=1&amp;MMN_position=5:5">http://www.appaloosaproject.com/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=1&amp;MMN_position=5:5</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved December 10, 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+Appaloosa+Project%3A+Studies+Currently+Underway&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Archer%2C+Sheila&amp;rft.au=Archer%2C+Sheila&amp;rft.pub=The+Appaloosa+Project&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosaproject.com%2Findex.php%3Fmodule%3Dpagemaster%26PAGE_user_op%3Dview_page%26PAGE_id%3D1%26MMN_position%3D5%3A5&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2792-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2792_13-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2792_13-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.27">Sponenberg, <i>Equine Color Genetics</i></a>, p.&#160;92.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.imh.org/Appaloosa-Horse.html">"Appaloosa Horse"</a>. <i>International Museum of the Horse&#160;– Horse Breeds of the World</i>. Kentucky Horse Park<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.imh.org/Appaloosa-Horse.html">http://www.imh.org/Appaloosa-Horse.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved April 2, 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Appaloosa+Horse&amp;rft.atitle=International+Museum+of+the+Horse%26nbsp%3B%E2%80%93+Horse+Breeds+of+the+World&amp;rft.pub=Kentucky+Horse+Park&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.imh.org%2FAppaloosa-Horse.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Based on images from <a href="#CITEREFSponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.27">Sponenberg, <i>Equine Color Genetics</i></a>, pp.&#160;153–156.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Bellone2010-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Bellone2010_16-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Bellone2010_16-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Bellone2010_16-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Bellone2010_16-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Bellone, R.; Archer, S.; Wade, C. M.; Cuka-Lawson, C.; Haase, B.; Leeb, T.; Forsyth, G.; Sandmeyer, L.; Grahn, B. (December 2010). "Association analysis of candidate SNPs in TRPM1 with leopard complex spotting (LP ) and congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) in horses". <i>Animal Genetics</i> <b>41</b> (Supplement s2): 207. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1365-2052.2010.02119.x">10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02119.x</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Association+analysis+of+candidate+SNPs+in+TRPM1+with+leopard+complex+spotting+%28LP%E2%80%8A%29+and+congenital+stationary+night+blindness+%28CSNB%29+in+horses&amp;rft.jtitle=Animal+Genetics&amp;rft.aulast=Bellone%2C+R.&amp;rft.au=Bellone%2C+R.&amp;rft.date=December+2010&amp;rft.volume=41&amp;rft.issue=Supplement+s2&amp;rft.pages=207&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1111%2Fj.1365-2052.2010.02119.x&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Terry-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Terry_17-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Terry, R. B.; Archer, S.; Brooks, S.; Bernoco, D.; Bailey, E. (2004). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2052.2004.01113.x?journalCode=age">"Assignment of the appaloosa coat colour gene (LP) to equine chromosome 1"</a>. <i>Animal Genetics</i> <b>35</b> (2): 134–137. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1365-2052.2004.01113.x">10.1111/j.1365-2052.2004.01113.x</a>. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15025575">15025575</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2052.2004.01113.x?journalCode=age">http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2052.2004.01113.x?journalCode=age</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved June 9, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Assignment+of+the+appaloosa+coat+colour+gene+%28LP%29+to+equine+chromosome+1&amp;rft.jtitle=Animal+Genetics&amp;rft.aulast=Terry%2C+R.+B.&amp;rft.au=Terry%2C+R.+B.&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.volume=35&amp;rft.issue=2&amp;rft.pages=134%E2%80%93137&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1111%2Fj.1365-2052.2004.01113.x&amp;rft_id=info:pmid/15025575&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.blackwell-synergy.com%2Fdoi%2Fabs%2F10.1111%2Fj.1365-2052.2004.01113.x%3FjournalCode%3Dage&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-18">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Horsemap/hgpcoatcolor.html">"Applications of Genome Study&#160;– Coat Color"</a>. <i>Horse Genome Project</i>. University of Kentucky. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080724141007/http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Horsemap/hgpcoatcolor.html">Archived</a> from the original on 24 July 2008<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Horsemap/hgpcoatcolor.html">http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Horsemap/hgpcoatcolor.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved July 3, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Applications+of+Genome+Study%26nbsp%3B%E2%80%93+Coat+Color&amp;rft.atitle=Horse+Genome+Project&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Kentucky&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.uky.edu%2FAg%2FHorsemap%2Fhgpcoatcolor.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2793-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTESponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.2793_19-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFSponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.27">Sponenberg, <i>Equine Color Genetics</i></a>, p.&#160;93.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.vgl.ucdavis.edu/services/coatcolor.php">"Introduction to Coat Color Genetics"</a>. Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080120014506/http://www.vgl.ucdavis.edu/services/coatcolor.php">Archived</a> from the original on 20 January 2008<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.vgl.ucdavis.edu/services/coatcolor.php">http://www.vgl.ucdavis.edu/services/coatcolor.php</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Introduction+to+Coat+Color+Genetics&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Veterinary+Genetics+Laboratory%2C+School+of+Veterinary+Medicine%2C+University+of+California-Davis&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vgl.ucdavis.edu%2Fservices%2Fcoatcolor.php&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Rule205-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Rule205_21-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Rule205_21-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">"2012 Appaloosa Horse Club Handbook"</a> (PDF). Appaloosa Horse Club. pp.&#160;Rule 205.C<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved April 2, 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=2012+Appaloosa+Horse+Club+Handbook&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3BRule+205.C&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fregistration%2Fhandbook.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosaproject.info/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=1&amp;MMN_position=5:5">"What is the Appaloosa Project?"</a>. The Appaloosa Project<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosaproject.info/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=1&amp;MMN_position=5:5">http://www.appaloosaproject.info/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=1&amp;MMN_position=5:5</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved October 25, 2009</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=What+is+the+Appaloosa+Project%3F&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=The+Appaloosa+Project&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosaproject.info%2Findex.php%3Fmodule%3Dpagemaster%26PAGE_user_op%3Dview_page%26PAGE_id%3D1%26MMN_position%3D5%3A5&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Pruvost, Bellone, <i>et al.</i> (November 15, 2011). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.pnas.org/content/108/46/18626.short">"Genotypes of prehistoric horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art"</a>. <i>Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</i> (National Academy of Sciences USA) <b>108</b> (46): 18626–18630. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1073%2Fpnas.1108982108">10.1073/pnas.1108982108</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.pnas.org/content/108/46/18626.short">http://www.pnas.org/content/108/46/18626.short</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2012-05-07</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Genotypes+of+prehistoric+horses+match+phenotypes+painted+in+Paleolithic+works+of+cave+art&amp;rft.jtitle=Proceedings+of+the+National+Academy+of+Sciences&amp;rft.aulast=Pruvost%2C+Bellone%2C+%27%27et+al.%27%27&amp;rft.au=Pruvost%2C+Bellone%2C+%27%27et+al.%27%27&amp;rft.date=November+15%2C+2011&amp;rft.volume=108&amp;rft.issue=46&amp;rft.pages=18626%E2%80%9318630&amp;rft.pub=National+Academy+of+Sciences+USA&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1073%2Fpnas.1108982108&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pnas.org%2Fcontent%2F108%2F46%2F18626.short&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/335913/title/Prehistoric_horses_came_in_leopard_print">"Prehistoric Horses Came In Leopard Print"</a>. Science News<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/335913/title/Prehistoric_horses_came_in_leopard_print">http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/335913/title/Prehistoric_horses_came_in_leopard_print</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2012-05-07</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Prehistoric+Horses+Came+In+Leopard+Print&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Science+News&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencenews.org%2Fview%2Fgeneric%2Fid%2F335913%2Ftitle%2FPrehistoric_horses_came_in_leopard_print&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Museum-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Museum_25-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Museum_25-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Museum_25-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Museum_25-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Museum_25-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/default.asp?contentID=521">"History of the Appaloosa"</a>. The Appaloosa Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080118212732/http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/default.asp?contentID=521">Archived</a> from the original on 18 January 2008<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/default.asp?contentID=521">http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/default.asp?contentID=521</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=History+of+the+Appaloosa&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=The+Appaloosa+Museum&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosamuseum.org%2Fcms%2Fdefault.asp%3FcontentID%3D521&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Ancient-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Ancient_26-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Peckinpah, Robert L. (January 1953). "Appaloosa Ancient History". <i>Horse Lover's Magazine</i>: 26–29.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Appaloosa+Ancient+History&amp;rft.jtitle=Horse+Lover%27s+Magazine&amp;rft.aulast=Peckinpah&amp;rft.aufirst=Robert+L.&amp;rft.au=Peckinpah%2C%26%2332%3BRobert+L.&amp;rft.date=January+1953&amp;rft.pages=26%E2%80%9329&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2712.E2.80.9316-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2712.E2.80.9316_27-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFRichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.27">Richardson, <i>Appaloosa</i></a>, pp.&#160;12–16.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-HotSpots-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-HotSpots_28-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Bennett, Deb (March 1997). "Hot Spots". <i><a href="/wiki/Equus_(magazine)" title="Equus (magazine)">Equus</a></i> <b>233</b>: 57.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Hot+Spots&amp;rft.jtitle=%5B%5BEquus+%28magazine%29%7CEquus%5D%5D&amp;rft.aulast=Bennett&amp;rft.aufirst=Deb&amp;rft.au=Bennett%2C%26%2332%3BDeb&amp;rft.date=March+1997&amp;rft.volume=233&amp;rft.pages=57&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27299-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27299_29-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27299_29-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFCrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27">Crowell, <i>Cavalcade</i></a>, p.&#160;299.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2717.E2.80.9318-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2717.E2.80.9318_30-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFRichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.27">Richardson, <i>Appaloosa</i></a>, pp.&#160;17–18.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27196-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27196_31-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27">Bennett, <i>Conquerors</i></a>, p.&#160;196.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27207-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27207_32-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27">Bennett, <i>Conquerors</i></a>, p.&#160;207.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Meredith-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Meredith_33-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Meredith_33-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Meredith_33-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Meredith, Mamie J. (December 1950). "Appalucy; Appaloosa; Appaloosie". <i>American Speech</i> (Duke University Press) <b>25</b> (4): 31. <a href="/wiki/JSTOR" title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/453271">453271</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Appalucy%3B+Appaloosa%3B+Appaloosie&amp;rft.jtitle=American+Speech&amp;rft.aulast=Meredith&amp;rft.aufirst=Mamie+J.&amp;rft.au=Meredith%2C%26%2332%3BMamie+J.&amp;rft.date=December+1950&amp;rft.volume=25&amp;rft.issue=4&amp;rft.pages=31&amp;rft.pub=Duke+University+Press&amp;rft.jstor=453271&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.227-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.227_34-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.22">West, "Nez Perce and Their Trials"</a>, p.&#160;7.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27134-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27134_35-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27">Malone Roeder &amp; Lang, <i>Montana</i></a>, p.&#160;134.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Spencer-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Spencer_36-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Spencer_36-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Spencer III, Dick (December 1958). "Appaloosas". <i>Western Livestock Journal</i>: 50, 53–55.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Appaloosas&amp;rft.jtitle=Western+Livestock+Journal&amp;rft.aulast=Spencer+III&amp;rft.aufirst=Dick&amp;rft.au=Spencer+III%2C%26%2332%3BDick&amp;rft.date=December+1958&amp;rft.pages=50%2C+53%E2%80%9355&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Appaloosa_History-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Appaloosa_History_37-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Appaloosa_History_37-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Appaloosa_History_37-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/association/history.htm">"Appaloosa History"</a>. Appaloosa Horse Club. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080219224347/http://www.appaloosa.com/association/history.htm">Archived</a> from the original on 19 February 2008<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/association/history.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/association/history.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Appaloosa+History&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fassociation%2Fhistory.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333_38-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333_38-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333_38-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27333_38-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27">Moulton, <i>Lewis and Clark Journals</i></a>, p.&#160;333.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27390-39"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27390_39-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27">Bennett, <i>Conquerors</i></a>, p.&#160;390.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27390.2C_392-40"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27390.2C_392_40-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27">Bennett, <i>Conquerors</i></a>, pp.&#160;390, 392.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.2214-41"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.2214_41-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.22">West, "Nez Perce and Their Trials"</a>, p.&#160;14.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2282-42"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2282_42-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2282_42-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFCiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.22">Ciarloni, "Shaping Stock Horses"</a>, p.&#160;82.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936-43"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936_43-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936_43-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936_43-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.225.E2.80.936_43-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.22">West, "Nez Perce and Their Trials"</a>, pp.&#160;5–6.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136-44"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27135.E2.80.93136_44-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27">Malone Roeder &amp; Lang, <i>Montana</i></a>, pp.&#160;135–136.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.229-45"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.229_45-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.22">West, "Nez Perce and Their Trials"</a>, p.&#160;9.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.224-46"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.224_46-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.224_46-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.224_46-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.22">West, "Nez Perce and Their Trials"</a>, p.&#160;4.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.2214.E2.80.9315-47"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.2214.E2.80.9315_47-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.22">West, "Nez Perce and Their Trials"</a>, pp.&#160;14–15.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-PBS-48"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-PBS_48-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-PBS_48-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-PBS_48-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/chiefjoseph.htm">"Chief Joseph"</a>. <i>New Perspectives on the West</i>. The West Film Project/WETA/PBS/. 2001<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/chiefjoseph.htm">http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/chiefjoseph.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved December 12, 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Chief+Joseph&amp;rft.atitle=New+Perspectives+on+the+West&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.pub=The+West+Film+Project%2FWETA%2FPBS%2F&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fweta%2Fthewest%2Fpeople%2Fa_c%2Fchiefjoseph.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2792.E2.80.9395-49"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2792.E2.80.9395_49-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2792.E2.80.9395_49-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.27">Haines, <i>Appaloosa</i></a>, pp.&#160;92–95.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27138-50"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27138_50-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27138_50-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27">Malone Roeder &amp; Lang, <i>Montana</i></a>, p.&#160;138.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2723-51"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2723_51-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFRichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.27">Richardson, <i>Appaloosa</i></a>, p.&#160;23.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2724.E2.80.9325-53"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTERichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2724.E2.80.9325_53-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFRichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.27">Richardson, <i>Appaloosa</i></a>, p.&#160;24–25.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Murphy-54"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Murphy_54-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Murphy_54-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Murphy, Michael (November 1995). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nezpercehorseregistry.com/11-96.html">"Nez Perce Launch Horse Breeding Program"</a>. <i>Articles</i>. Nez Perce Horse Registry<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.nezpercehorseregistry.com/11-96.html">http://www.nezpercehorseregistry.com/11-96.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Nez+Perce+Launch+Horse+Breeding+Program&amp;rft.atitle=Articles&amp;rft.aulast=Murphy%2C+Michael&amp;rft.au=Murphy%2C+Michael&amp;rft.date=November+1995&amp;rft.pub=Nez+Perce+Horse+Registry&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nezpercehorseregistry.com%2F11-96.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2796.E2.80.9398-55"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2796.E2.80.9398_55-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.27">Haines, <i>Appaloosa</i></a>, pp.&#160;96–98.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27296.E2.80.93297-56"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27296.E2.80.93297_56-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27296.E2.80.93297_56-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFCrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27">Crowell, <i>Cavalcade</i></a>, pp.&#160;296–297.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-57"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-57">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Meredith, Mamie J. (May 1952). "'Opelousas,' Another Spelling of 'Appalucy'". <i>American Speech (Duke University Press)</i> <b>27</b> (2): 150.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=%27Opelousas%2C%27+Another+Spelling+of+%27Appalucy%27&amp;rft.jtitle=American+Speech+%28Duke+University+Press%29&amp;rft.aulast=Meredith%2C+Mamie+J.&amp;rft.au=Meredith%2C+Mamie+J.&amp;rft.date=May+1952&amp;rft.volume=27&amp;rft.issue=2&amp;rft.pages=150&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2283-58"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2283_58-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2283_58-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFCiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.22">Ciarloni, "Shaping Stock Horses"</a>, p.&#160;83.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-ApHC_History-59"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-ApHC_History_59-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/default.asp?contentID=524">"History of the ApHC"</a>. The Appaloosa Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080206014113/http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/default.asp?contentID=524">Archived</a> from the original on 6 February 2008<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/default.asp?contentID=524">http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/default.asp?contentID=524</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=History+of+the+ApHC&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=The+Appaloosa+Museum&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosamuseum.org%2Fcms%2Fdefault.asp%3FcontentID%3D524&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2798-60"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2798_60-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.2798_60-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.27">Haines, <i>Appaloosa</i></a>, p.&#160;98.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-61"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-61">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosamuseum.org">"Appaloosa Museum"</a>. The Appaloosa Museum. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080115090850/http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/">Archived</a> from the original on 15 January 2008<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosamuseum.org">http://www.appaloosamuseum.org</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Appaloosa+Museum&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=The+Appaloosa+Museum&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosamuseum.org&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2283.E2.80.9384-62"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTECiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.2283.E2.80.9384_62-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFCiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.22">Ciarloni, "Shaping Stock Horses"</a>, pp.&#160;83–84.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._1.27.27-63"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._1.27.27_63-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._1.27.27">Appaloosa Horse Club, <i>Appaloosa Horse Club Stud Book, Vol. 1</i></a>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Thompson-64"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Thompson_64-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Thompson_64-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Thorson, Juli S. (June 1997). "Claude Thompson: Appaloosa Forefather". <i>Appaloosa Journal</i>: 40–45.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Claude+Thompson%3A+Appaloosa+Forefather&amp;rft.jtitle=Appaloosa+Journal&amp;rft.aulast=Thorson&amp;rft.aufirst=Juli+S.&amp;rft.au=Thorson%2C%26%2332%3BJuli+S.&amp;rft.date=June+1997&amp;rft.pages=40%E2%80%9345&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._2_.26_3.27.27-65"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._2_.26_3.27.27_65-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._2_.26_3.27.27">Appaloosa Horse Club, <i>Appaloosa Horse Club Stud Book, Vol. 2 &amp; 3</i></a>.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Rule204-66"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Rule204_66-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">"2012 Appaloosa Horse Club Handbook"</a> (PDF). <i>Rule 204 A 1, 2, 3</i>. Appaloosa Horse Club<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved April 2, 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=2012+Appaloosa+Horse+Club+Handbook&amp;rft.atitle=Rule+204+A+1%2C+2%2C+3&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fregistration%2Fhandbook.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Facts-67"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Facts_67-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/popupwindows/factsheet.htm">"Appaloosa Horse Club Fact Sheet"</a>. Appaloosa Horse Club<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/popupwindows/factsheet.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/popupwindows/factsheet.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved February 1, 2007</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Appaloosa+Horse+Club+Fact+Sheet&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fpopupwindows%2Ffactsheet.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-68"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-68">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Sellnow, Les (September 1, 2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=12798">"Overbreeding"</a> (Registration required). <i>The Horse</i><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=12798">http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=12798</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved October 24, 2009</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Overbreeding&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Horse&amp;rft.aulast=Sellnow%2C+Les&amp;rft.au=Sellnow%2C+Les&amp;rft.date=September+1%2C+2008&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thehorse.com%2FViewArticle.aspx%3FID%3D12798&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-69"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-69">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.accessidaho.org/secure/itd/personalized/plates.html?ScriptForm.startstep=request&amp;ScriptForm.startScriptForm.start.ScriptStepView.requestPLATE_TYPEvalue=11">"Personalized Plates for Your Vehicle &amp; Souvenir Sample Plates"</a>. Idaho Transportation Department<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="https://www.accessidaho.org/secure/itd/personalized/plates.html?ScriptForm.startstep=request&amp;ScriptForm.startScriptForm.start.ScriptStepView.requestPLATE_TYPEvalue=11">https://www.accessidaho.org/secure/itd/personalized/plates.html?ScriptForm.startstep=request&amp;ScriptForm.startScriptForm.start.ScriptStepView.requestPLATE_TYPEvalue=11</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Personalized+Plates+for+Your+Vehicle+%26+Souvenir+Sample+Plates&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Idaho+Transportation+Department&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.accessidaho.org%2Fsecure%2Fitd%2Fpersonalized%2Fplates.html%3FScriptForm.startstep%3Drequest%26ScriptForm.startScriptForm.start.ScriptStepView.requestPLATE_TYPEvalue%3D11&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-70"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-70">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/popupwindows/licenseplate.htm">"Everything you need to know about the Appaloosa License Plate"</a>. Appaloosa Horse Club<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/popupwindows/licenseplate.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/popupwindows/licenseplate.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Everything+you+need+to+know+about+the+Appaloosa+License+Plate&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fpopupwindows%2Flicenseplate.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-71"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-71">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/clubs-affiliates/international/international.htm">"Appaloosa Horse Club: International Affiliates"</a>. Appaloosa Horse Club. 2008. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080215131557/http://www.appaloosa.com/clubs-affiliates/international/international.htm">Archived</a> from the original on 15 February 2008<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/clubs-affiliates/international/international.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/clubs-affiliates/international/international.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved February 12, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Appaloosa+Horse+Club%3A+International+Affiliates&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fclubs-affiliates%2Finternational%2Finternational.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Circ-72"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Circ_72-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/sponsorlevels.PDF">"Appaloosa Horse Club Sponsorship Levels"</a> (PDF). Appaloosa Horse Club. p.&#160;4<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/sponsorlevels.PDF">http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/sponsorlevels.PDF</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved February 12, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Appaloosa+Horse+Club+Sponsorship+Levels&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B4&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fpdfs%2Fsponsorlevels.PDF&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-membership-73"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-membership_73-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/membership/membership.htm">"ApHC Membership"</a>. Appaloosa Horse Club. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080221012221/http://www.appaloosa.com/membership/membership.htm">Archived</a> from the original on 21 February 2008<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/membership/membership.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/membership/membership.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved February 12, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=ApHC+Membership&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fmembership%2Fmembership.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-amapp-74"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-amapp_74-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-amapp_74-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.amappaloosa.com/mainpage.cfm">"American Appaloosa Association"</a>. American Appaloosa Association<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.amappaloosa.com/mainpage.cfm">http://www.amappaloosa.com/mainpage.cfm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=American+Appaloosa+Association&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=American+Appaloosa+Association&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.amappaloosa.com%2Fmainpage.cfm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-75"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-75">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.org.uk/breedhistory.htm">"Breed History"</a>. The British Appaloosa Society<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.org.uk/breedhistory.htm">http://www.appaloosa.org.uk/breedhistory.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved May 11, 2011</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Breed+History&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=The+British+Appaloosa+Society&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.org.uk%2Fbreedhistory.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-76"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-76">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa-stamboek.com/">"Vereniging het Nederlandse Appaloosa Stamboek"</a> (in Dutch). Vereniging het Nederlandse Appaloosa Stamboek<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa-stamboek.com/">http://www.appaloosa-stamboek.com/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved May 11, 2011</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Vereniging+het+Nederlandse+Appaloosa+Stamboek&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Vereniging+het+Nederlandse+Appaloosa+Stamboek&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa-stamboek.com%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-77"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-77">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Roberts, Honi. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.myhorse.com/mr-appaloosa.html">"Mr. Appaloosa"</a>. <i>Trail Rider</i><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.myhorse.com/mr-appaloosa.html">http://www.myhorse.com/mr-appaloosa.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved May 11, 2011</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Mr.+Appaloosa&amp;rft.jtitle=Trail+Rider&amp;rft.aulast=Roberts%2C+Honi&amp;rft.au=Roberts%2C+Honi&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.myhorse.com%2Fmr-appaloosa.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEEvans.2C_.27.27Horses.27.27132-78"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEEvans.2C_.27.27Horses.27.27132_78-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFEvans.2C_.27.27Horses.27.27">Evans, <i>Horses</i></a>, p.&#160;132.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-79"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-79">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/performance-permit.htm">"Performance Permit Program"</a>. Appaloosa Horse Club<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/performance-permit.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/performance-permit.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved October 24, 2009</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Performance+Permit+Program&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fregistration%2Fperformance-permit.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-80"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-80">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/FeeSchedule.pdf">"2011 ApHC Fee Schedule"</a> (PDF). Appaloosa Horse Club. p.&#160;1<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/FeeSchedule.pdf">http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/FeeSchedule.pdf</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 3, 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=2011+ApHC+Fee+Schedule&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B1&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fpdfs%2FFeeSchedule.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEHolmes.2C_.27.27Spotted_Pride.27.27165-81"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEHolmes.2C_.27.27Spotted_Pride.27.27165_81-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFHolmes.2C_.27.27Spotted_Pride.27.27">Holmes, <i>Spotted Pride</i></a>, p.&#160;165.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-82"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-82">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/famoushorses.asp">"Famous horses"</a>. The Appaloosa Museum. 2007. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20090101114054/http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/famoushorses.asp">Archived</a> from the original on 1 January 2009<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/famoushorses.asp">http://www.appaloosamuseum.org/cms/famoushorses.asp</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved December 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Famous+horses&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.pub=The+Appaloosa+Museum&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosamuseum.org%2Fcms%2Ffamoushorses.asp&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEStanger.2C_.27.27Fifty_Years_of_Appaloosa_History.27.27163-83"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEStanger.2C_.27.27Fifty_Years_of_Appaloosa_History.27.27163_83-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFStanger.2C_.27.27Fifty_Years_of_Appaloosa_History.27.27">Stanger, <i>Fifty Years of Appaloosa History</i></a>, p.&#160;163.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-84"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-84">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/tips-for-registration.htm">"Tips for Registering Your Appaloosa"</a>. Appaloosa Horse Club. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080213121435/http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/tips-for-registration.htm">Archived</a> from the original on 13 February 2008<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/tips-for-registration.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/tips-for-registration.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Tips+for+Registering+Your+Appaloosa&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fregistration%2Ftips-for-registration.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEDutson.2C_.27.27Storey.27s_Illustrated_Guide_to_96_Horse_Breeds_of_North_America.27.2774.E2.80.9378-85"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEDutson.2C_.27.27Storey.27s_Illustrated_Guide_to_96_Horse_Breeds_of_North_America.27.2774.E2.80.9378_85-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFDutson.2C_.27.27Storey.27s_Illustrated_Guide_to_96_Horse_Breeds_of_North_America.27.27">Dutson, <i>Storey's Illustrated Guide to 96 Horse Breeds of North America</i></a>, pp.&#160;74–78.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-86"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-86">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/race/milestones.htm">"Milestones in Appaloosa racing"</a>. The Appaloosa Horse Club<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/race/milestones.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/race/milestones.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved September 25, 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Milestones+in+Appaloosa+racing&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=The+Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Frace%2Fmilestones.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-FOOTNOTEWilson.2C_.27.27Animal_Movies_Guide.27.27161-87"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEWilson.2C_.27.27Animal_Movies_Guide.27.27161_87-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a href="#CITEREFWilson.2C_.27.27Animal_Movies_Guide.27.27">Wilson, <i>Animal Movies Guide</i></a>, p.&#160;161.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-88"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-88">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Murphy, Caitriona (May 20, 2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.independent.ie/farming/news-features/ride-em-like-a-real-cowboy-1380570.html">"Ride 'em like a real cowboy"</a>. Independent News &amp; Media Plc<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.independent.ie/farming/news-features/ride-em-like-a-real-cowboy-1380570.html">http://www.independent.ie/farming/news-features/ride-em-like-a-real-cowboy-1380570.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved July 3, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Ride+%27em+like+a+real+cowboy&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Murphy%2C+Caitriona&amp;rft.au=Murphy%2C+Caitriona&amp;rft.date=May+20%2C+2008&amp;rft.pub=Independent+News+%26+Media+Plc&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.independent.ie%2Ffarming%2Fnews-features%2Fride-em-like-a-real-cowboy-1380570.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-89"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-89">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Hayes, Marsha (December 23, 2010). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=17427">"Horsey Hollywood: Meet the Equine Stars of "True Grit""</a>. Blood Horse Publications<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=17427">http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=17427</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved December 29, 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Horsey+Hollywood%3A+Meet+the+Equine+Stars+of+%22True+Grit%22&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Hayes%2C+Marsha&amp;rft.au=Hayes%2C+Marsha&amp;rft.date=December+23%2C+2010&amp;rft.pub=Blood+Horse+Publications&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thehorse.com%2FViewArticle.aspx%3FID%3D17427&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-90"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-90">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Powell, Robert Andrew (2005). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+debate+over+Indian+mascots%3a+does+the+NCAA%27s+ban+on+Indian+mascots+...-a0139784006">"The debate over Indian mascots: does the NCAA's ban on Indian mascots and nicknames go too far, or not far enough? Fans—and tribes—are divided."</a>. <i>The New York Times Upfront</i>. Scholastic, Inc<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+debate+over+Indian+mascots%3a+does+the+NCAA%27s+ban+on+Indian+mascots+...-a0139784006">http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+debate+over+Indian+mascots%3a+does+the+NCAA%27s+ban+on+Indian+mascots+...-a0139784006</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+debate+over+Indian+mascots%3A+does+the+NCAA%27s+ban+on+Indian+mascots+and+nicknames+go+too+far%2C+or+not+far+enough%3F+Fans%E2%80%94and+tribes%E2%80%94are+divided.&amp;rft.atitle=The+New+York+Times+Upfront&amp;rft.aulast=Powell%2C+Robert+Andrew&amp;rft.au=Powell%2C+Robert+Andrew&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.pub=Scholastic%2C+Inc&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thefreelibrary.com%2FThe%2Bdebate%2Bover%2BIndian%2Bmascots%253a%2Bdoes%2Bthe%2BNCAA%2527s%2Bban%2Bon%2BIndian%2Bmascots%2B...-a0139784006&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-POA-91"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-POA_91-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.poac.org/breed/history.htm">"A Brief History of the POA Breed and POAC"</a>. Pony of the Americas Club<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.poac.org/breed/history.htm">http://www.poac.org/breed/history.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved September 25, 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=A+Brief+History+of+the+POA+Breed+and+POAC&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Pony+of+the+Americas+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.poac.org%2Fbreed%2Fhistory.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Ranger-92"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Ranger_92-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.coloradoranger.com/History.html">"CRHA History"</a>. Colorado Ranger Horse Association<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.coloradoranger.com/History.html">http://www.coloradoranger.com/History.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved February 1, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=CRHA+History&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Colorado+Ranger+Horse+Association&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.coloradoranger.com%2FHistory.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-94"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-94">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">"2012 Official Handbook of the Appaloosa Horse Club"</a> (PDF). Appaloosa Horse Club. pp.&#160;Rules 204, 205<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved June 6, 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=2012+Official+Handbook+of+the+Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3BRules+204%2C+205&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fregistration%2Fhandbook.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-95"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-95">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.walkaloosaregistry.com/">"Walkaloosa Horse Association"</a>. Walkaloosa Horse Association<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.walkaloosaregistry.com/">http://www.walkaloosaregistry.com/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved April 18, 2011</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Walkaloosa+Horse+Association&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Walkaloosa+Horse+Association&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.walkaloosaregistry.com%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-96"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-96">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.tigrehorse.com/">"Introduction to the Tiger Horse"</a>. <i>The Tiger Horse</i>. TIGRE The Tiger Horse Breed Registry. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20110419180605/http://www.tigrehorse.com/">Archived</a> from the original on 19 April 2011<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.tigrehorse.com/">http://www.tigrehorse.com/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved April 18, 2011</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Introduction+to+the+Tiger+Horse&amp;rft.atitle=The+Tiger+Horse&amp;rft.pub=TIGRE+The+Tiger+Horse+Breed+Registry&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tigrehorse.com%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-97"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-97">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.spanishjennet.org/atigrado.shtml">"Atigrado Spanish Jennet"</a>. Spanish Jennet Horse Society<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.spanishjennet.org/atigrado.shtml">http://www.spanishjennet.org/atigrado.shtml</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved April 18, 2011</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Atigrado+Spanish+Jennet&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Spanish+Jennet+Horse+Society&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.spanishjennet.org%2Fatigrado.shtml&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-98"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-98">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.knabstrupperforeningen.dk/sider/english-knabstruphistory.htm">"Some History about The Knabstrup Horse"</a>. Knabstrupperforeningen for Danmark. 2005<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.knabstrupperforeningen.dk/sider/english-knabstruphistory.htm">http://www.knabstrupperforeningen.dk/sider/english-knabstruphistory.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved March 22, 2011</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Some+History+about+The+Knabstrup+Horse&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.pub=Knabstrupperforeningen+for+Danmark&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.knabstrupperforeningen.dk%2Fsider%2Fenglish-knabstruphistory.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-99"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-99">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Sandmeyer, Lynne (July 28, 2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosaproject.info/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=40&amp;MMN_position=68:68">"Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU)"</a>. The Appaloosa Project<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosaproject.info/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=40&amp;MMN_position=68:68">http://www.appaloosaproject.info/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=40&amp;MMN_position=68:68</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved March 21, 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Equine+Recurrent+Uveitis+%28ERU%29&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Sandmeyer%2C+Lynne&amp;rft.au=Sandmeyer%2C+Lynne&amp;rft.date=July+28%2C+2008&amp;rft.pub=The+Appaloosa+Project&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosaproject.info%2Findex.php%3Fmodule%3Dpagemaster%26PAGE_user_op%3Dview_page%26PAGE_id%3D40%26MMN_position%3D68%3A68&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-100"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-100">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Loving, Nancy (April 19, 2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=11687">"Uveitis: Medical and Surgical Treatment"</a> (Registration required). <i>The Horse</i><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=11687">http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=11687</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved March 21, 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Uveitis%3A+Medical+and+Surgical+Treatment&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Horse&amp;rft.aulast=Loving%2C+Nancy&amp;rft.au=Loving%2C+Nancy&amp;rft.date=April+19%2C+2008&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thehorse.com%2FViewArticle.aspx%3FID%3D11687&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-101"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-101">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118669468/abstract">"Abstracts: 36th Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, Nashville, TN, USA, October 12–15, 2005"</a>. <i>Veterinary Ophthalmology</i> <b>8</b> (6): 437–450. November 2005. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1463-5224.2005.00442.x">10.1111/j.1463-5224.2005.00442.x</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118669468/abstract">http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118669468/abstract</a></span>. "Based on these data, we conclude that a susceptibility allele for ERU in Appaloosas exists in the MHC region."</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Abstracts%3A+36th+Annual+Meeting+of+the+American+College+of+Veterinary+Ophthalmologists%2C+Nashville%2C+TN%2C+USA%2C+October+12%E2%80%9315%2C+2005&amp;rft.jtitle=Veterinary+Ophthalmology&amp;rft.date=November+2005&amp;rft.volume=8&amp;rft.issue=6&amp;rft.pages=437%E2%80%93450&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1111%2Fj.1463-5224.2005.00442.x&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww3.interscience.wiley.com%2Fjournal%2F118669468%2Fabstract&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-CSNBstudies-102"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-CSNBstudies_102-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-CSNBstudies_102-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Archer, Sheila. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosaproject.com/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=34">"Night Blindness in the Appaloosa (CSNB)"</a>. The Appaloosa Project<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosaproject.com/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=34">http://www.appaloosaproject.com/index.php?module=pagemaster&amp;PAGE_user_op=view_page&amp;PAGE_id=34</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved December 12, 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Night+Blindness+in+the+Appaloosa+%28CSNB%29&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Archer%2C+Sheila&amp;rft.au=Archer%2C+Sheila&amp;rft.pub=The+Appaloosa+Project&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosaproject.com%2Findex.php%3Fmodule%3Dpagemaster%26PAGE_user_op%3Dview_page%26PAGE_id%3D34&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-witzel1977-103"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-witzel1977_103-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Witzel, C.A.; Joyce, J.R.; Smith, E.L. (1977). "Electroretinography of congenital night blindness in an Appaloosa filly". <i>Journal of Equine Medicine and Surgery</i> (1): 226–229.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Electroretinography+of+congenital+night+blindness+in+an+Appaloosa+filly&amp;rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Equine+Medicine+and+Surgery&amp;rft.aulast=Witzel%2C+C.A.%3B+Joyce%2C+J.R.%3B+Smith%2C+E.L.&amp;rft.au=Witzel%2C+C.A.%3B+Joyce%2C+J.R.%3B+Smith%2C+E.L.&amp;rft.date=1977&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=226%E2%80%93229&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Sandmeyer2007-104"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Sandmeyer2007_104-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Breaux, Carrie B, Archer, Sheila; Grahn, Bruce H. (November 2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2007.00572.x">"Clinical and electroretinographic characteristics of congenital stationary night blindness in the Appaloosa and the association with the leopard complex"</a>. <i>Journal of the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmology (ACVO)</i> (Blackwell Science) <b>10</b> (6): 368–375. <a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1463-5224.2007.00572.x">10.1111/j.1463-5224.2007.00572.x</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2007.00572.x">http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2007.00572.x</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved December 10, 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Clinical+and+electroretinographic+characteristics+of+congenital+stationary+night+blindness+in+the+Appaloosa+and+the+association+with+the+leopard+complex&amp;rft.jtitle=Journal+of+the+American+College+of+Veterinary+Ophthalmology+%28ACVO%29&amp;rft.aulast=Sandmeyer%2C+Lynne+S.&amp;rft.au=Sandmeyer%2C+Lynne+S.&amp;rft.date=November+2007&amp;rft.volume=10&amp;rft.issue=6&amp;rft.pages=368%E2%80%93375&amp;rft.pub=Blackwell+Science&amp;rft_id=info:doi/10.1111%2Fj.1463-5224.2007.00572.x&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.blackwell-synergy.com%2Fdoi%2Fabs%2F10.1111%2Fj.1463-5224.2007.00572.x&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-105"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-105">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=10852">"Researchers Pinpoint Link Between Appaloosa Coloring and Night Blindness"</a> (Registration required). <i>The Horse</i>. November 21, 2007<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=10852">http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=10852</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved February 7, 2009</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Researchers+Pinpoint+Link+Between+Appaloosa+Coloring+and+Night+Blindness&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Horse&amp;rft.date=November+21%2C+2007&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thehorse.com%2FViewArticle.aspx%3FID%3D10852&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-106"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-106">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">Oke, Stacey (August 31, 2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=12595">"Shedding Light on Night Blindness in Appaloosas"</a> (Registration required). <i>The Horse</i><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=12595">http://www.thehorse.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ID=12595</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved February 7, 2009</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Shedding+Light+on+Night+Blindness+in+Appaloosas&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Horse&amp;rft.aulast=Oke%2C+Stacey&amp;rft.au=Oke%2C+Stacey&amp;rft.date=August+31%2C+2008&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thehorse.com%2FViewArticle.aspx%3FID%3D12595&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-108"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-108">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">"2012 Appaloosa Horse Club Handbook"</a> (PDF). Appaloosa Horse Club. 2012. p.&#160;Rule 40C, note<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm">http://www.appaloosa.com/registration/handbook.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved April 2, 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=2012+Appaloosa+Horse+Club+Handbook&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2012&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3BRule+40C%2C+note&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fregistration%2Fhandbook.htm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-109"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-109">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Nelson, Shonda (2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/HYPPTestingProcedures.pdf">"Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP) Testing Procedures"</a> (PDF). Appaloosa Horse Club. pp.&#160;1–2<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/HYPPTestingProcedures.pdf">http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/HYPPTestingProcedures.pdf</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved March 26, 2011</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Hyperkalemic+Periodic+Paralysis+%28HYPP%29+Testing+Procedures&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Nelson&amp;rft.aufirst=Shonda&amp;rft.au=Nelson%2C%26%2332%3BShonda&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B1%E2%80%932&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fpdfs%2FHYPPTestingProcedures.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-110"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-110">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/SummaryofMotions07_08_07.pdf">"July 2007 Appaloosa Horse Club Board Motions"</a> (PDF). Appaloosa Horse Club. pp.&#160;21–24<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/SummaryofMotions07_08_07.pdf">http://www.appaloosa.com/pdfs/SummaryofMotions07_08_07.pdf</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=July+2007+Appaloosa+Horse+Club+Board+Motions&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B21%E2%80%9324&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.appaloosa.com%2Fpdfs%2FSummaryofMotions07_08_07.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-111"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-111">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.usef.org/documents/competitions/2007/2007DrugsMedsGuidelines.pdf">"Drugs and Medication Guidelines"</a> (PDF). United States Equestrian Federation. August 1, 2007. p.&#160;1. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20080911032453/http://www.usef.org/documents/competitions/2007/2007DrugsMedsGuidelines.pdf">Archived</a> from the original on 11 September 2008<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.usef.org/documents/competitions/2007/2007DrugsMedsGuidelines.pdf">http://www.usef.org/documents/competitions/2007/2007DrugsMedsGuidelines.pdf</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved August 11, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Drugs+and+Medication+Guidelines&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=August+1%2C+2007&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B1&amp;rft.pub=United+States+Equestrian+Federation&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.usef.org%2Fdocuments%2Fcompetitions%2F2007%2F2007DrugsMedsGuidelines.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span> <i>Note: Specifically lists Furosemide.</i></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-112"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-112">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.feicleansport.org/2011_Equine_Prohibited_List.pdf">"2011 Prohibited Substances List"</a> (PDF). <i>Veterinary Regulations</i>. Federation Equestre Internationale. 2011. p.&#160;26<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.feicleansport.org/2011_Equine_Prohibited_List.pdf">http://www.feicleansport.org/2011_Equine_Prohibited_List.pdf</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved May 12, 2011</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=2011+Prohibited+Substances+List&amp;rft.atitle=Veterinary+Regulations&amp;rft.date=2011&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B26&amp;rft.pub=Federation+Equestre+Internationale&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.feicleansport.org%2F2011_Equine_Prohibited_List.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span> <i>Note: Specifically lists Furosemide.</i></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-113"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-113">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://aqha.com/Showing/Content-Pages/Resources/Exhibitors/Guide-to-Showing/Therapeutic-Medication-Fact-Sheet.aspx">"Therapeutic Medication Fact Sheet"</a>. <a href="/wiki/American_Quarter_Horse_Association" title="American Quarter Horse Association">American Quarter Horse Association</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://aqha.com/Showing/Content-Pages/Resources/Exhibitors/Guide-to-Showing/Therapeutic-Medication-Fact-Sheet.aspx">http://aqha.com/Showing/Content-Pages/Resources/Exhibitors/Guide-to-Showing/Therapeutic-Medication-Fact-Sheet.aspx</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved September 25, 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Therapeutic+Medication+Fact+Sheet&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BAmerican+Quarter+Horse+Association%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Faqha.com%2FShowing%2FContent-Pages%2FResources%2FExhibitors%2FGuide-to-Showing%2FTherapeutic-Medication-Fact-Sheet.aspx&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-114"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-114">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.apha.com/forms/rulebooks.html">"APHA Rulebook"</a>. <a href="/wiki/American_Paint_Horse_Association" title="American Paint Horse Association">American Paint Horse Association</a>. pp.&#160;78–79, Rule CS–085. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://web.archive.org/web/20071231044640/http://www.apha.com/forms/rulebooks.html">Archived</a> from the original on 31 December 2007<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.apha.com/forms/rulebooks.html">http://www.apha.com/forms/rulebooks.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved January 31, 2008</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=APHA+Rulebook&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B78%E2%80%9379%2C+Rule+CS%E2%80%93085&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BAmerican+Paint+Horse+Association%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.apha.com%2Fforms%2Frulebooks.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-PHBA-115"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-PHBA_115-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.palominohba.com/competitions/show_management/2008_2009_rule_book/">"PHBA Rule Book"</a> (PDF). Palomino Horse Breeders Association. pp.&#160;77–78, Rule 2528A<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.palominohba.com/competitions/show_management/2008_2009_rule_book/">http://www.palominohba.com/competitions/show_management/2008_2009_rule_book/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved October 24, 2009</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=PHBA+Rule+Book&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B77%E2%80%9378%2C+Rule+2528A&amp;rft.pub=Palomino+Horse+Breeders+Association&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.palominohba.com%2Fcompetitions%2Fshow_management%2F2008_2009_rule_book%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span> The PHBA does not allow Lasix within 24&#160;hours of show and only allows Acetazolamide for HYPP horses.</span></li>
</ol>
</div>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18" title="Edit section: References">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
<div class="refbegin references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 60em; -webkit-column-width: 60em; column-width: 60em;">
<ul>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._1.27.27"><a href="/wiki/Appaloosa_Horse_Club" title="Appaloosa Horse Club">Appaloosa Horse Club</a>. <i>Appaloosa Horse Club Stud Book Volume 1</i>. Moscow, Idaho: Appaloosa Horse Club. <a href="/wiki/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/9494129">9494129</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Appaloosa+Horse+Club+Stud+Book+Volume+1&amp;rft.aulast=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft.au=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft.place=Moscow%2C+Idaho&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=info:oclcnum/9494129&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFAppaloosa_Horse_Club.2C_.27.27Appaloosa_Horse_Club_Stud_Book.2C_Vol._2_.26_3.27.27"><a href="/wiki/Appaloosa_Horse_Club" title="Appaloosa Horse Club">Appaloosa Horse Club</a>. <i>Appaloosa Horse Club Stud Book Volume 2 &amp; 3</i>. Moscow, Idaho: Appaloosa Horse Club. <a href="/wiki/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/9494129">9494129</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Appaloosa+Horse+Club+Stud+Book+Volume+2+%26+3&amp;rft.aulast=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft.au=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft.place=Moscow%2C+Idaho&amp;rft.pub=Appaloosa+Horse+Club&amp;rft_id=info:oclcnum/9494129&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFBennett.2C_.27.27Conquerors.27.27">Bennett, Deb (1998). <i>Conquerors: The Roots of New World Horsemanship</i> (1st ed.). Solvang, California: Amigo Publications. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-9658533-0-9" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-9658533-0-9">978-0-9658533-0-9</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Conquerors%3A+The+Roots+of+New+World+Horsemanship&amp;rft.aulast=Bennett&amp;rft.aufirst=Deb&amp;rft.au=Bennett%2C%26%2332%3BDeb&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.edition=1st&amp;rft.place=Solvang%2C+California&amp;rft.pub=Amigo+Publications&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-9658533-0-9&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFCiarloni.2C_.22Shaping_Stock_Horses.22">Ciarloni, Diane (January 2011). "Shaping Stock Horses". <i>Western Horseman</i>: 76–84.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Shaping+Stock+Horses&amp;rft.jtitle=Western+Horseman&amp;rft.aulast=Ciarloni&amp;rft.aufirst=Diane&amp;rft.au=Ciarloni%2C%26%2332%3BDiane&amp;rft.date=January+2011&amp;rft.pages=76%E2%80%9384&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFCrowell.2C_.27.27Cavalcade.27.27">Crowell, Pers (1951). <i>Cavalcade of American Horses</i>. New York: McGraw-Hill. <a href="/wiki/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/1428574">1428574</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Cavalcade+of+American+Horses&amp;rft.aulast=Crowell&amp;rft.aufirst=Pers&amp;rft.au=Crowell%2C%26%2332%3BPers&amp;rft.date=1951&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=McGraw-Hill&amp;rft_id=info:oclcnum/1428574&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFDutson.2C_.27.27Storey.27s_Illustrated_Guide_to_96_Horse_Breeds_of_North_America.27.27">Dutson, Judith (2005). <i>Storey's Illustrated Guide to 96 Horse Breeds of North America</i>. North Adams, Massachusetts: Storey Publishing. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-58017-612-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-58017-612-5">978-1-58017-612-5</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Storey%27s+Illustrated+Guide+to+96+Horse+Breeds+of+North+America&amp;rft.aulast=Dutson&amp;rft.aufirst=Judith&amp;rft.au=Dutson%2C%26%2332%3BJudith&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.place=North+Adams%2C+Massachusetts&amp;rft.pub=Storey+Publishing&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-58017-612-5&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFEvans.2C_.27.27Horses.27.27">Evans, J. Warren (2000). <i>Horses: A Guide to Selection, Care and Enjoyment</i>. New York: W. H. Freeman. p.&#160;132. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-7167-4255-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7167-4255-5">978-0-7167-4255-5</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Horses%3A+A+Guide+to+Selection%2C+Care+and+Enjoyment&amp;rft.aulast=Evans&amp;rft.aufirst=J.+Warren&amp;rft.au=Evans%2C%26%2332%3BJ.+Warren&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B132&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=W.+H.+Freeman&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7167-4255-5&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFHaines.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.27">Haines, Francis (1975) [1946]. <i>Appaloosa: The Spotted Horse in Art and History</i>. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-912830-21-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-912830-21-6">978-0-912830-21-6</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Appaloosa%3A+The+Spotted+Horse+in+Art+and+History&amp;rft.aulast=Haines&amp;rft.aufirst=Francis&amp;rft.au=Haines%2C%26%2332%3BFrancis&amp;rft.date=1975&amp;rft.place=Austin%2C+Texas&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Texas+Press&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-912830-21-6&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFHarris.2C_.27.27Horse_Breeds_of_the_West.27.27">Harris, Freddie S. (1973). <i>Horse Breeds of the West</i>. Houston, Texas: Cordovan Corp. <a href="/wiki/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/1583675">1583675</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Horse+Breeds+of+the+West&amp;rft.aulast=Harris&amp;rft.aufirst=Freddie+S.&amp;rft.au=Harris%2C%26%2332%3BFreddie+S.&amp;rft.date=1973&amp;rft.place=Houston%2C+Texas&amp;rft.pub=Cordovan+Corp&amp;rft_id=info:oclcnum/1583675&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFHolmes.2C_.27.27Spotted_Pride.27.27">Holmes, Frank (2003). <i>Spotted Pride</i>. Abilene, Kansas: Loft Enterprises. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-9714998-3-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-9714998-3-6">978-0-9714998-3-6</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Spotted+Pride&amp;rft.aulast=Holmes&amp;rft.aufirst=Frank&amp;rft.au=Holmes%2C%26%2332%3BFrank&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.place=Abilene%2C+Kansas&amp;rft.pub=Loft+Enterprises&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-9714998-3-6&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFMalone_Roeder_.26_Lang.2C_.27.27Montana.27.27">Malone, Michael P.; Roeder, Richard B.; Lang, William L. (1991). <i>Montana: A History of Two Centuries</i>. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-295-97129-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-295-97129-2">978-0-295-97129-2</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Montana%3A+A+History+of+Two+Centuries&amp;rft.aulast=Malone&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael+P.&amp;rft.au=Malone%2C%26%2332%3BMichael+P.&amp;rft.au=Roeder%2C%26%2332%3BRichard+B.&amp;rft.au=Lang%2C%26%2332%3BWilliam+L.&amp;rft.date=1991&amp;rft.place=Seattle%2C+Washington&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Washington+Press&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-295-97129-2&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFMoulton.2C_.27.27Lewis_and_Clark_Journals.27.27">Moulton, Gary E., ed. (2003). <i>The Lewis and Clark Journals</i>. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8032-8039-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8032-8039-7">978-0-8032-8039-7</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Lewis+and+Clark+Journals&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.place=Lincoln%2C+Nebraska&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Nebraska+Press&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8032-8039-7&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFRichardson.2C_.27.27Appaloosa.27.27">Richardson, Bill; Richardson, Dona (1968). <i>The Appaloosa</i>. New York: A. S. Barnes. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-498-06787-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-498-06787-7">978-0-498-06787-7</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Appaloosa&amp;rft.aulast=Richardson&amp;rft.aufirst=Bill&amp;rft.au=Richardson%2C%26%2332%3BBill&amp;rft.au=Richardson%2C%26%2332%3BDona&amp;rft.date=1968&amp;rft.place=New+York&amp;rft.pub=A.+S.+Barnes&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-498-06787-7&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFSponenberg.2C_.27.27Equine_Color_Genetics.27.27">Sponenberg, Dan Phillip (2003). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=ihTMGxdBXb8C"><i>Equine Color Genetics</i></a> (Second ed.). Ames, Iowa: Wiley Blackwell. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8138-0759-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8138-0759-1">978-0-8138-0759-1</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://books.google.com/?id=ihTMGxdBXb8C">http://books.google.com/?id=ihTMGxdBXb8C</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Equine+Color+Genetics&amp;rft.aulast=Sponenberg&amp;rft.aufirst=Dan+Phillip&amp;rft.au=Sponenberg%2C%26%2332%3BDan+Phillip&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.edition=Second&amp;rft.place=Ames%2C+Iowa&amp;rft.pub=Wiley+Blackwell&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8138-0759-1&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DihTMGxdBXb8C&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFStanger.2C_.27.27Fifty_Years_of_Appaloosa_History.27.27">Stanger, Edith M. (1997). <i>Fifty Years of Appaloosa History</i>. (No location listed): Double Arrow Appaloosas. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-9661160-4-5" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-9661160-4-5">978-0-9661160-4-5</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Fifty+Years+of+Appaloosa+History&amp;rft.aulast=Stanger&amp;rft.aufirst=Edith+M.&amp;rft.au=Stanger%2C%26%2332%3BEdith+M.&amp;rft.date=1997&amp;rft.place=%28No+location+listed%29&amp;rft.pub=Double+Arrow+Appaloosas&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-9661160-4-5&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation Journal" id="CITEREFWest.2C_.22Nez_Perce_and_Their_Trials.22">West, Elliott (Autumn 2010). "The Nez Perce and Their Trials: Rethinking America's Indian Wars". <i>Montana: the Magazine of Western History</i> <b>60</b> (3): 3–18.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=The+Nez+Perce+and+Their+Trials%3A+Rethinking+America%27s+Indian+Wars&amp;rft.jtitle=Montana%3A+the+Magazine+of+Western+History&amp;rft.aulast=West&amp;rft.aufirst=Elliott&amp;rft.au=West%2C%26%2332%3BElliott&amp;rft.date=Autumn+2010&amp;rft.volume=60&amp;rft.issue=3&amp;rft.pages=3%E2%80%9318&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
<li><span class="citation book" id="CITEREFWilson.2C_.27.27Animal_Movies_Guide.27.27">Wilson, Staci Layne (2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.google.com/?id=dGYzZLrBrS4C&amp;pg=PA161&amp;dq=animal+movies+guide+appaloosa"><i>Animal Movies Guide</i></a>. (No location listed): Running Free Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-9675185-3-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-9675185-3-4">978-0-9675185-3-4</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://books.google.com/?id=dGYzZLrBrS4C&amp;pg=PA161&amp;dq=animal+movies+guide+appaloosa">http://books.google.com/?id=dGYzZLrBrS4C&amp;pg=PA161&amp;dq=animal+movies+guide+appaloosa</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Animal+Movies+Guide&amp;rft.aulast=Wilson&amp;rft.aufirst=Staci+Layne&amp;rft.au=Wilson%2C%26%2332%3BStaci+Layne&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.place=%28No+location+listed%29&amp;rft.pub=Running+Free+Press&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-9675185-3-4&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2F%3Fid%3DdGYzZLrBrS4C%26pg%3DPA161%26dq%3Danimal%2Bmovies%2Bguide%2Bappaloosa&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Appaloosa"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></li>
</ul>
</div>
<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Appaloosa&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span></h2>
<table class="metadata mbox-small plainlinks" style="border:1px solid #aaa; background-color:#f9f9f9;">
<tr>
<td class="mbox-image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/30px-Commons-logo.svg.png" width="30" height="40" /></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist" style="">Wikimedia Commons has media related to: <i><b><a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Appaloosa" class="extiw" title="commons:Appaloosa">Appaloosa</a></b></i></td>
</tr>
</table>
<ul>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.com/">The Appaloosa Horse Club</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.amappaloosa.com/mainpage.cfm">American Appaloosa Association</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.ca/">Appaloosa Horse Club of Canada</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.dk/">Appaloosa Horse Club of Denmark</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.aphcg.com/">Appaloosa Horse Club of Germany</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosa.nl/">American Appaloosa Horse Club Holland</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.appaloosaassn.co.nz/">Appaloosa Horse Association of New Zealand</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.aphcuk.org/">Appaloosa Horse Club of the United Kingdom</a></li>
</ul>
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<td style="padding:2px;">
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<tr>
<th scope="col" style=";" class="navbox-title" colspan="3">
<div class="noprint plainlinks hlist navbar mini" style="">
<ul>
<li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Equine" title="Template:Equine"><span title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">v</span></a></li>
<li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Equine" title="Template talk:Equine"><span title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">t</span></a></li>
<li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Equine&amp;action=edit"><span title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">e</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/wiki/Equus_(genus)" title="Equus (genus)">Equine</a></div>
</th>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px;">
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";line-height:1.1em; padding:0.5em 1.0em;;">Equine science and<br />
management</th>
<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Equine_anatomy" title="Equine anatomy">Equine anatomy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Equine_nutrition" title="Equine nutrition">Equine nutrition</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horse_behavior" title="Horse behavior">Horse behavior</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horse_care" title="Horse care">Horse care</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horse_breeding" title="Horse breeding">Horse breeding</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Equine_conformation" title="Equine conformation">Equine conformation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Equine_coat_color" title="Equine coat color">Equine coat color</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horse_gait" title="Horse gait">Horse gait</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
<td class="navbox-image" style="width:0%;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px;background:#f7f7f7;" rowspan="7">
<div><a href="/wiki/File:Mare_and_foal_(Kvetina-Marie).jpg" class="image"><img alt="Adult horse, presumably female, standing behind a baby horse.  The adult horse is palomino, a golden color.  The baby horse is chestnut, a light red-brown color." src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Mare_and_foal_%28Kvetina-Marie%29.jpg/150px-Mare_and_foal_%28Kvetina-Marie%29.jpg" width="150" height="113" /></a></div>
</td>
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<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";line-height:1.1em; padding:0.5em 1.0em;;"><a href="/wiki/Equestrianism" title="Equestrianism">Equestrianism</a><br />
and sport</th>
<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_equestrian_terms" title="Glossary of equestrian terms">Glossary of equestrian terms</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_Equestrian_Sports" title="List of Equestrian Sports">List of Equestrian Sports</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horse_tack" title="Horse tack">Horse tack</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bit_(horse)" title="Bit (horse)">Bit</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bridle" title="Bridle">Bridle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Saddle" title="Saddle">Saddle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horse_harness" title="Horse harness">Harness</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/English_riding" title="English riding">English riding</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Western_riding" title="Western riding">Western riding</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Driving_(horse)" title="Driving (horse)">Driving</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horse_training" title="Horse training">Horse training</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horse_racing" title="Horse racing">Horse racing</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Equestrian_at_the_Summer_Olympics" title="Equestrian at the Summer Olympics">Equestrian at the Summer Olympics</a> (<a href="/wiki/List_of_Olympic_medalists_in_equestrian" title="List of Olympic medalists in equestrian">medalists</a>, <a href="/wiki/List_of_Olympic_venues_in_equestrian" title="List of Olympic venues in equestrian">venues</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horse_show" title="Horse show">Horse show</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Equitation" title="Equitation">Equitation</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
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<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";line-height:1.1em; padding:0.5em 1.0em;;"><a href="/wiki/Evolution_of_the_horse" title="Evolution of the horse">Evolution</a> and history</th>
<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Domestication_of_the_horse" title="Domestication of the horse">Domestication of the horse</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horses_in_warfare" title="Horses in warfare">Horses in warfare</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horses_in_the_Middle_Ages" title="Horses in the Middle Ages">Horses in the Middle Ages</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horses_in_East_Asian_warfare" title="Horses in East Asian warfare">Horses in East Asian warfare</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_horse_in_South_Asia" title="History of the horse in South Asia">History of the horse in South Asia</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horses_in_the_Napoleonic_Wars" title="Horses in the Napoleonic Wars">Horses in the Napoleonic Wars</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horses_in_World_War_I" title="Horses in World War I">Horses in World War I</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horses_in_World_War_II" title="Horses in World War II">Horses in World War II</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_the_horse_in_Britain" title="History of the horse in Britain">History of the horse in Britain</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horse_worship" title="Horse worship">Horse worship</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Horse_burial" title="Horse burial">Horse burial</a></li>
</ul>
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<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";line-height:1.1em; padding:0.5em 1.0em;;"><a href="/wiki/Horse_breed" title="Horse breed">Horse breeds</a>, types<br />
and other <a href="/wiki/Equidae" title="Equidae">Equidae</a></th>
<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;background:transparent; padding:0;" class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist">
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<div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/wiki/Horse" title="Horse">Horses</a></div>
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<ul>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/List_of_horse_breeds" title="List of horse breeds">List of horse breeds</a></b></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Draft_horse" title="Draft horse">Draft horse</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Feral_horse" title="Feral horse">Feral horse</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gaited_horse" title="Gaited horse" class="mw-redirect">Gaited horse</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mountain_and_moorland_pony_breeds" title="Mountain and moorland pony breeds">Mountain and moorland pony breeds</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sport_horse" title="Sport horse">Sport horse</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Stock_horse" title="Stock horse">Stock horse</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Warmblood" title="Warmblood">Warmblood</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Wild_horse" title="Wild horse">Wild horse</a></li>
</ul>
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<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;font-weight:normal;;">
<div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Other <i>Equus</i></div>
</th>
<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;background:transparent;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><b><a href="/wiki/List_of_donkey_breeds" title="List of donkey breeds">List of donkey breeds</a></b></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Donkey" title="Donkey">Donkey</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zebra" title="Zebra">Zebra</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Onager" title="Onager">Onager</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;font-weight:normal;;">
<div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Hybrids</div>
</th>
<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;background:#f7f7f7;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hinny" title="Hinny">Hinny</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mule" title="Mule">Mule</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zebroid" title="Zebroid">Zebroid</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px;">
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";" colspan="3">
<div><a href="/wiki/Category:Equidae" title="Category:Equidae">Category: <b>Equidae</b></a></div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
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Appaloosa
A dark brown horse with a white and brown spotted rump running in a field.
Appaloosa horse
Distinguishing features Most representatives have colorful spotted coat patterns, striped hooves, mottled skin and white sclera visible around the iris when the eye is in a normal position.
Country of origin United States
Breed standards
Appaloosa Horse Club Breed standards
Horse (Equus ferus caballus)

The Appaloosa is a horse breed best known for its colorful leopard-spotted coat pattern. There is a wide range of body types within the breed, stemming from the influence of multiple breeds of horses throughout its history. Each horse's color pattern is genetically the result of various spotting patterns overlaid on top of one of several recognized base coat colors. The color pattern of the Appaloosa is of interest to those who study equine coat color genetics, as it and several other physical characteristics are linked to the leopard complex mutation (LP). Appaloosas are prone to develop equine recurrent uveitis and congenital stationary night blindness; the latter has been linked to the leopard complex.

Artwork depicting prehistoric horses with leopard spotting exists in prehistoric cave paintings in Europe. Images of domesticated horses with leopard spotting patterns appeared in artwork from Ancient Greece through the Early modern period; the Nez Perce people of what today is the United States Pacific Northwest developed the original American breed. Appaloosas were once referred to by settlers as the "Palouse horse", possibly after the Palouse River, which ran through the heart of Nez Perce country. Gradually, the name evolved into "Appaloosa". The Nez Perce lost most of their horses after the Nez Perce War in 1877, and the breed fell into decline for several decades. A small number of dedicated breeders preserved the Appaloosa as a distinct breed until the Appaloosa Horse Club (ApHC) was formed as the breed registry in 1938. The modern breed maintains bloodlines tracing to the foundation bloodstock of the registry, and has a partially open stud book that allows addition of some Thoroughbred, American Quarter Horse and Arabian blood.

Today, the Appaloosa is one of the most popular breeds in the United States; it was named the official state horse of Idaho in 1975. It is best known as a stock horse used in a number of western riding disciplines, but is also a versatile breed with representatives seen in many other types of equestrian activity. Appaloosas have appeared in many movies and one is a mascot for the Florida State Seminoles. Appaloosa bloodlines have influenced other horse breeds, including the Pony of the Americas, the Nez Perce Horse, and several gaited horse breeds.

Contents

[edit] Breed characteristics

The head of a light-colored horse with dark spots, showing spotting around the skin of the eye and muzzle.
Mottling on the skin is particularly visible around the eyes and muzzle. The sclera of an Appaloosa's eye is white.

The Appaloosa is best known for its distinctive, preferred leopard complex spotted coat. Spotting occurs in several overlay patterns on one of several recognized base coat colors. There are three other distinctive, "core" characteristics: mottled skin, striped hooves, and eyes with a white sclera.[1] Skin mottling is usually seen around the muzzle, eyes, anus, and genitalia.[2] Striped hooves are a common trait, quite noticeable on Appaloosas, but not unique to the breed.[3] The sclera is the part of the eye surrounding the iris; although all horses show white around the eye if the eye is rolled back, to have a readily visible white sclera with the eye in a normal position is a distinctive characteristic seen more often in Appaloosas than in other breeds.[3] Because the occasional individual is born with little or no visible spotting pattern, the ApHC allows "regular" registration of horses with mottled skin plus at least one of the other core characteristics. Horses with two ApHC parents but no "identifiable Appaloosa characteristics" are registered as "non-characteristic," a limited special registration status.[1]

There is a wide range of body types in the Appaloosa, in part because the leopard complex characteristics are its primary identifying factors, and also because several different horse breeds influenced its development. The weight range varies from 950 to 1,250 pounds (430 to 570 kg), and heights from 14 to 16 hands (56 to 64 inches, 142 to 163 cm).[4] However, the ApHC does not allow pony or draft breeding.[1]

The original "old time" or "old type" Appaloosa was a tall, narrow-bodied, rangy horse.[5] The body style reflected a mix that started with the traditional Spanish horses already common on the plains of America before 1700. Then, 18th-century European bloodlines were added, particularly those of the "pied" horses popular in that period and shipped en masse to the Americas once the color had become unfashionable in Europe.[6] These horses were similar to a tall, slim Thoroughbred-Andalusian type of horse popular in Bourbon-era Spain.[6][7] The original Appaloosa tended to have a convex facial profile that resembled that of the warmblood-Jennet crosses first developed in the 16th century during the reign of Charles V.[5][8] The old-type Appaloosa was later modified by the addition of draft horse blood after the 1877 defeat of the Nez Perce, when U.S. Government policy forced the Indians to become farmers and provided them with draft horse mares to breed to existing stallions.[5] The original Appaloosas frequently had a sparse mane and tail, but that was not a primary characteristic as many early Appaloosas did have full manes and tails.[9] There is a possible genetic link between the leopard complex and sparse mane and tail growth, although the precise relationship is unknown.[10]

After the formation of the Appaloosa Horse Club in 1938, a more modern type developed after the addition of American Quarter Horse and Arabian bloodlines. The addition of Quarter Horse lines produced Appaloosas that performed better in sprint racing and in halter competition. Many cutting and reining horses resulted from old-type Appaloosas crossed on Arabian bloodlines, particularly via the Appaloosa foundation stallion Red Eagle.[11] An infusion of Thoroughbred blood was added during the 1970s to produce horses more suited for racing.[12] Many current breeders also attempt to breed away from the sparse, "rat tail" trait, and therefore modern Appaloosas have fuller manes and tails.[9]

[edit] Color and spotting patterns

Few spot leopard Appaloosa with wet coat showing "halo" effect of dark skin under white coat around spots.

The coat color of an Appaloosa is a combination of a base color with an overlaid spotting pattern. The base colors recognized by the Appaloosa Horse Club include bay, black, chestnut, palomino, buckskin, cremello or perlino, roan, gray, dun and grulla. Appaloosa markings have several pattern variations.[3] It is this unique group of spotting patterns, collectively called the "leopard complex",[13] that most people associate with the Appaloosa horse.[3] Spots overlay darker skin, and are often surrounded by a "halo", where the skin next to the spot is also dark but the overlying hair coat is white.[14]

It is not always easy to predict a grown Appaloosa's color at birth. Foals of any breed tend to be born with coats that darken when they shed their baby hair.[15] In addition, Appaloosa foals do not always show classic leopard complex characteristics.[13] Patterns sometimes change over the course of the horse's life although some, such as the blanket and leopard patterns, tend to be stable. Horses with the varnish roan and snowflake patterns are especially prone to show very little color pattern at birth, developing more visible spotting as they get older.[14]

The ApHC also recognizes the concept of a "solid" horse, which has a base color "but no contrasting color in the form of an Appaloosa coat pattern". Solid horses can be registered if they have mottled skin and one other leopard complex characteristic.[3]

Base colors are overlain by various spotting patterns, which are variable and often do not fit neatly into a specific category.[3] These patterns are described as follows:

Pattern Description Image[16]
Spots General term that refers to a horse that has white or dark spots over all or a portion of its body.[3] Appaloosa (DSC00229).jpg
Blanket or snowcap A solid white area normally over, but not limited to, the hip area with a contrasting base color.[3][10] SnowflakeCrop.jpg
Blanket with spots A white blanket which has dark spots within the white. The spots are usually the same color as the horse's base color.[3] Appaloosa46-2.jpg
Leopard A white horse with dark spots that flow out over the entire body. Considered an extension of a blanket to cover the whole body.[10] Appaloosa stallion.JPG
Few spot leopard A mostly white horse with a bit of color remaining around the flank, neck and head.[10] Shiny fewspot.jpg
Snowflake A horse with white spots, flecks, on a dark body. Typically the white spots increase in number and size as the horse ages.[10] AppaloosaSnowflakes.jpg
Appaloosa roan, marble
  or varnish roan
A distinct version of the leopard complex. Intermixed dark and light hairs with lighter colored area on the forehead, jowls and frontal bones of the face, over the back, loin and hips. Darker areas may appear along the edges of the frontal bones of the face as well and also on the legs, stifle, above the eye, point of the hip and behind the elbow. The dark points over bony areas are called "varnish marks" and distinguish this pattern from a traditional roan.[3][10] Flurrie 3.jpg
Mottled A fewspot leopard that is completely white with only mottled skin showing.[10] Appyfoal.jpg
Roan blanket or Frost Horses with roaning over the croup and hips. The blanket normally occurs over, but is not limited to, the hip area.[3][10] Standing Apaloosa.jpg
Roan blanket with spots A horse with a roan blanket that has white and/or dark spots within the roan area.[3] LeopardHorse.jpg

[edit] Color genetics

A brown and white striped horse hoof, with a dark colored leg partially visible
Striped hooves are a characteristic trait.

Any horse that shows Appaloosa core characteristics of coat pattern, mottled skin, striped hooves, and a visible white sclera, carries at least one allele of the dominant "leopard complex" (LP) gene. The use of the word "complex" is used to refer to the large group of visible patterns that may occur when LP is present.[13] LP is an autosomal incomplete dominant mutation in the TRPM1 gene located at horse chromosome 1 (ECA 1).[17][18] All horses with at least one copy of LP show leopard characteristics, and it is hypothesized that LP acts together with other patterning genes (PATN) that have not yet been identified to produce the different coat patterns.[13][19] Horses that are heterozygous for LP tend to be darker than homozygous horses, but this is not consistent.[20]

Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TRPM1 gene have been identified as closely associated with the LP mutation, although the mechanism by which the pattern is produced remains unclear.[13][17] A commercially available DNA based test is likely to be developed in the near future, which breeders can use to determine if LP is present in horses that do not have visible Appaloosa characteristics.[13][17]

Not every Appaloosa exhibits visible coat spotting, but even apparently solid-colored horses that carry at least one dominant LP allele will exhibit characteristics such as vertically striped hooves, white sclera of the eye, and mottled skin around the eyes, lips, and genitalia.[21] Appaloosas may also exhibit sabino or pinto type markings, but because pinto genes may cover-up or obscure Appaloosa patterns, pinto breeding is discouraged by the ApHC, which will deny registration to horses with excessive white markings.[22] The genes that create these different patterns can all be present in the same horse. The Appaloosa Project, a genetic study group, has researched the interactions of Appaloosa and pinto genes and how they affect each other.[23]

[edit] History

Painting of a man holding a sword while riding a rearing horse
A 1674 painting of Louis XIV on a spotted horse

Recent research has suggested that Eurasian prehistoric cave paintings depicting leopard-spotted horses may have accurately reflected a phenotype of ancient wild horse.[24][25] Domesticated horses with leopard complex spotting patterns have been depicted in art dating as far back as Ancient Greece, Ancient Persia, and the Han Dynasty in China; later depictions appeared in 11th-century France and 12th-century England.[26][27] French paintings from the 16th and 17th centuries show horses with spotted coats being used as riding horses, and other records indicate they were also used as coach horses at the court of Louis XIV of France.[28] In mid-18th-century Europe, there was a great demand for horses with the leopard complex spotting pattern among the nobility and royalty. These horses were used in the schools of horsemanship, for parade use, and other forms of display.[29] Modern horse breeds in Europe today that have leopard complex spotting include the Knabstrupper and the Pinzgau, or Noriker horse.[26]

The Spanish probably obtained spotted horses through trade with southern Austria and Hungary, where the color pattern was known to exist.[30] The Conquistadors and Spanish settlers then brought some vividly marked horses to the Americas when they first arrived in the early 16th century.[30][31] One horse with snowflake patterning was listed with the 16 horses brought to Mexico by Cortez,[32] and additional spotted horses were mentioned by Spanish writers by 1604.[33] Others arrived in the western hemisphere when spotted horses went out of style in late 18th-century Europe,[6] and were shipped to Mexico,[34] California and Oregon.[6]

[edit] Nez Perce people

In the foreground, two Native American men wearing cowboy attire sit crosslegged on the ground. In the background, a dark colored horse with a white and black spotted rump stands saddled and bridled.
Two Nez Perce men with an Appaloosa, about 1895

The Nez Perce people lived in what today is eastern Washington, Oregon, and western Idaho,[35] where they engaged in agriculture as well as horse breeding.[36] The Nez Perce first obtained horses from the Shoshone around 1730.[34] They took advantage of the fact that they lived in excellent horse-breeding country, relatively safe from the raids of other tribes, and developed strict breeding selection practices for their animals, establishing breeding herds by 1750. They were one of the few tribes that actively used the practice of gelding inferior male horses and trading away poorer stock to remove unsuitable animals from the gene pool,[26][37] and thus were notable as horse breeders by the early 19th century.[38]

Early Nez Perce horses were considered to be of high quality. Meriwether Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition wrote in his February 15, 1806, journal entry: "Their horses appear to be of an excellent race; they are lofty, eligantly [sic] formed, active and durable: in short many of them look like fine English coarsers [sic] and would make a figure in any country."[39] Lewis did note spotting patterns, saying, "... some of these horses are pided [pied] with large spots of white irregularly scattered and intermixed with the black brown bey [sic] or some other dark colour".[39] By "pied", Lewis may have been referring to leopard-spotted patterns seen in the modern Appaloosa,[39][40] though Lewis also noted that "much the larger portion are of a uniform colour".[39] The Appaloosa Horse Club estimates that only about ten percent of the horses owned by the Nez Perce at the time were spotted.[38] While the Nez Perce originally had many solid-colored horses and only began to emphasize color in their breeding some time after the visit of Lewis and Clark, they had many spotted horses by the late 19th century.[41] As white settlers moved into traditional Nez Perce lands, a successful trade in horses enriched the Nez Perce, who in 1861 bred horses described as "elegant chargers, fit to mount a prince."[42] At a time when ordinary horses could be purchased for $15, non-Indians who had purchased Appaloosa horses from the Nez Perce turned down offers of as much as $600.[43]

[edit] Nez Perce War

Peace with the United States dated back to an alliance arranged by Lewis and Clark,[44] but the encroachment of gold miners in the 1860s and settlers in the 1870s put pressure on the Nez Perce.[45] Although a treaty of 1855 originally allowed them to keep most of their traditional land, another in 1863 reduced the land alloted to them by 90 percent.[46] The Nez Perce who refused to give up their land under the 1863 treaty included a band living in the Wallowa Valley of Oregon, led by Heinmot Tooyalakekt, widely known as Chief Joseph.[47] Tensions rose, and in May 1877, General Oliver Howard called a council and ordered the non-treaty bands to move to the reservation.[45][48] Chief Joseph considered military resistance futile,[49] and by June 14, 1877, had gathered about 600 people at a site near present-day Grangeville, Idaho.[44] But on that day a small group of warriors staged an attack on nearby white settlers,[45] which led to the Nez Perce War.[44] After several small battles in Idaho,[44] more than 800 Nez Perce, mostly non-warriors, took 2000 head of various livestock including horses and fled into Montana, then traveled southeast, dipping into Yellowstone National Park.[45][47] A small number of Nez Perce fighters, probably fewer than 200,[49] successfully held off larger forces of the U.S. Army in several skirmishes, including the two-day Battle of the Big Hole in southwestern Montana.[45] They then moved northeast and attempted to seek refuge with the Crow Nation; rebuffed, they headed for safety in Canada.[45]

Throughout this journey of about 1,400 miles (2,300 km)[49] the Nez Perce relied heavily on their fast, agile and hardy Appaloosa horses.[50] The journey came to an end when they stopped to rest near the Bears Paw Mountains in Montana, 40 miles (64 km) from the Canadian border. Unbeknownst to the Nez Perce, Colonel Nelson A. Miles had led an infantry-cavalry column from Fort Keogh in pursuit. On October 5, 1877, after a five-day fight, Joseph surrendered. The battle—and the war—was over.[50][51] With most of the war chiefs dead, and the noncombatants cold and starving, Joseph declared that he would "fight no more forever".[51][52]

[edit] Aftermath of the Nez Perce War

When the U.S. 7th Cavalry accepted the surrender of Chief Joseph and the remaining Nez Perce, they immediately took more than 1,000 of the tribe's horses, sold what they could and shot many of the rest. But a significant population of horses had been left behind in the Wallowa valley when the Nez Perce began their retreat, and additional animals escaped or were abandoned along the way.[26] The Nez Perce were ultimately settled on reservation lands in north central Idaho,[a] were allowed few horses, and were required by the Army to crossbreed to draft horses in an attempt to create farm horses.[53] The Nez Perce tribe never regained its former position as breeders of Appaloosas, but in the late 20th century they began a program to develop a new horse breed, the Nez Perce horse, with the intent to resurrect their horse culture, tradition of selective breeding, and horsemanship.[54]

Although a remnant population of Appaloosa horses remained after 1877, they were virtually forgotten as a distinct breed for almost 60 years.[26] A few quality horses continued to be bred, mostly those captured or purchased by settlers and used as working ranch horses. Others were used in circuses and related forms of entertainment such as Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show.